**The Structure of Matter: The Basic Particle Model**

**A fundamental particle model explains Newton physics,relativity (SR and GR), duality, and particle properties in a classical way.**

Summary

A particle model, which is assumed to be applicable for elementary particles, i.e. for

- leptons

- quarks

explains - in additon to classical mechanics - phenomena which are normally attributed to relativity (SR and GR) and to quantum mechanics. The model is called the "Basic Particle Model".

The following physical phenomena are consequences of this particle model

- Inertial mass

- Relativistic increase of the mass

- Mass-energy equivalence

- Newton's law of motion

- Energy conservation

- Constancy of the angular momentum (spin)

- Magnetic moment

- Gyro-magnetic relation

- Relativistic dilation of time

- Gravity

- Relativistic change of gravity

- Particle-wave duality.

And please note: The consequences listed here are not merely philosophical ideas, but are proven by quantitatively correct results.

(Note: This site is also available as a pdf file.)

__1 Introduction__

According to the Basic Particle Model, every elementary particle is built by 2 mass-less constituents that orbit each other with the speed of light *c*. The frequency of the circulation is the de Broglie frequency (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1: Structure of an elementary particle according to the Basic Particle Model

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__2   History of the Basic Particle Model__The Basic Particle Model can be linked to the work of de Broglie, Dirac, and Schrödinger in the 1920s.

**1st Louis de Broglie** stated (1923) that each elementary particle has an internal oscillation whose frequency *&nu* is related to the gross energy*E* of the particle by the relation

(2.1)

where *h* is the Planck constant [1].

**2nd Paul Dirac** has developed the relativistic wave function of the Electron, which was analysed by Schrödinger.

**3rd Erwin Schrödinger**. He found that, as a consequence of the Dirac function, the inside of the electron is constantly moving at the speed of light *c*.

These assumptions caused some physical problems:

- Even at the time of Dirac and Schrödinger it was assumed that the electron is a point-like object with no further constituents
A point like object cannot oscillate, because this would mean a permanent violation of the momentum law

Consequence: - The electron hasmass
**Consequence:**No motion with the speed of light c is possible. This would be a violation of special relativity.

These conflicts have not be resolved during the last 100 years, but they have been attributed to quantum mechanics, which, however, cannot be understood by imagination. This viewpoint has been accepted by most members of the physical community. However, contrary to this point of view, matter can in fact be understood with imagination if one makes a few assumptions that are very natural:

- We have to assume that the electron is built by 2 constituents
- These constituents are mass-less and orbit each other at the speed of light
*c*.

These assumptions solve the problems mentioned above:

- There is no momentum conflict
- For a mass-less object the motion at the speed of light is natural.

On the other hand, there are no conflicts with the current experimental situation in physics:

- The conclusion that the electron has no constituents has been drawn from scattering experiments. The interpretation of these experiment has always been based on the assumption that if the electron had constituents, they would have their own mass. The alternative assumption of 'no mass' has never been considered. The full rationale used here is explained in the context of the ELECTRON.
- The origin of the mass of the electron in its entity is caused by the fact that any configuration of objects bound togehter in such a way that they maintain a distance from each other has an inertial behaviour. The is explained in the context of the INERTIAL MASS.

The structure of an elementary particle described above is assumed to be valid for every lepton and every quark. It is called the "Basic Particle Model".

3 Consequences of the Basic Particle Model3 Consequences of the Basic Particle Model

The Basic Particle Model is a powerful model which is capable of explaining many physical phenomena. These phenomena are listed in the summary above. (These phenomena are normally explained by different assumptions of "physical principles" and other assumed fundamental laws, which normally have no further explanation and which sometimes even conflict with each other.)

__3.1 Consequences with Respect to Relativity____ __

For the case of special relativity the phenomenon of dilation is a consequence of the model. Details are in the given links about specialRELATIVITY in general and about TIME DILATION.

__3.2 Consequences with Respect to Inertial Mass__

The inertial mass of an elementary particle and the mass-size relation are a consequence of the model. From this application of the model there also follows the relativistic increase of mass in motion and the mass-energy equivalence. In addition, Newton's law of motion is a consequence of the particle structure assumed in this model and, as a further consequence of Newton's law, the law of conservation of energy. This is explained in the context of INERTIAL MASS.

__3.3 Consequences with Respect to Gravity__

Following an idea of Roman Sexl, General Relativity can be explained using the refraction of light-like particles at a gravitational potential. This concept combined with the basic particle model is able to explain GRAVITY and the other phenomena related to General Relativity.

__3.4 Consequences with Respect to Particle Properties __

Particle properties, which in physical common sense can only be described by quantum mechanics, can be classically derived from the basic particle model. This is explained using the ELECTRON as an example, but can be applied to all elementary particles. This includes the constancy of the spin, the magnetic moment and also the mass dependence of the gyro-magnetic relation.

__3.5 Particle-Wave Duality__

The particle-wave duality, which has been the mainstay of quantum mechanics (within the so called 'Copenhagen interpretation') can be classically understood according to Louis de Broglie, in terms of the basic particle model. This is explained (qualitatively in this case) in the context ofSPECIAL RELATIVITY (last section).

__4 References__

`[1] Louis de Broglie, RADIATIONS - Ondes et Quanta, Comptes rendus, Vol. 177, 1923, pp. 507-510.`

NOTE:

The concept of the "Basic Particle Model" of matter was first presented at the Spring Conference of the German Physical Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft) on 24 March 2000 in Dresden

by Albrecht Giese.

2024-06-24

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