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( ot,vrHlll t) t()57, I985 by Spring publications, Inc.All rrplhrs rrrcwcd

l'Lrl'lrslrtd by Spring Publications, Inc..)8 I r()nt Slrcet, Slrite 3, Purnam, CT 06260www

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in publication Data

Jrrng, Emma.Animus; and, Anima.

Tianslation of, ein Beitrag zum problem des Animus,and of, Anima.

Originally published , New york , AnalyticalPsychology CIub of New york, j 957

1. Animus (Psychoanalysis) 2. Anima (psychoanalysis)LJung, Emma. Anima. English 1985. II.ntle.

BFtz5 5.A53J86 r9B5 150 19'54 85-18299ISBN 0-882 r 4,301 8

@)The papcr used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the AmercanNational Standard for Information Sciences_permanence oI paper for t rint.a iiOr",yMalcrials, ANSI 239 48- I992


On the Nature of the Animus.

Translated. by Cary F. Baynes

The Anima as an Elemental Being. . . . . .. .. .

Translated, by Hildegard Nagel




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"On the Nature of the Animtrs" was read at thePsychological Club ofZiirich in November 1931and was first published, in a slightly expandedform, in Wirklichkeit der Seele (Ztrich: RascherVerlag, 1934). The version read to the Club wastranslated into English by Mrs. Baynes and ap-peared in Sprizg 1941. -fhe present version hasbeen revised to correspond more closely with thepublished German version. It is printed by per-mission of Rascher Verlag.

"The Anima as an Elemental Being" in Cermanwas entitled "Die Anima als Naturwesen" andappeared in Studien zur analytischex Psychologie C.G. J ngs (Znrich: Rascher Verlag,1955), vol, 2. It is published here by permrssronof the Curatorium of the C.C. Jung Insricute,Zirich.

The essays are reprinted with the addirional per-mission of the Erbengemeinschaft Emma Jung.




HE anima and the animus are two archetypal figures ofespecially great importance. They belong on the one hand

to the individual consciousness and on the other hand are

rooted in the collective unconscious, thus forming a connect-

ing link or bridge between the personal and the impersonal,

tlre conscious and the unconscious. It is because one is femi'nine and the other masculine that C. G. Jung has called themirnima and animus respectively.l He understands these figures

to be function complexes behaving in ways compensatory to

the outer personality, that is, behaving as if they were innerpersonalities and exhibiting the characteristics rvhich are lack-

ing in the outer, and manifest, conscious personality. In a man,

these are feminine characteristics, in a woman, masculine.

Normally both are alrvays present, to a certain degree, but findno place in the person's outwardly directed functioning be'

cause they disturb his outer adaptation, his established ideal

image of himself.However, tlre character oI these figures is not determined

only l>y thc Iatcnt scxlral characteristics they represent; it is

(r)n(litioned by thc cxpericrrcc ca(lr person has had in thc

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course of his or her life lvith representatives of the other sex_and also by the collective image of woman carried in the psychcof t he individ ual man. and r he I oller r ive image of man carrieclby the woman. These three factors coalesce to form a ouantitvwhiclr is neirlrer solely an image rror solely experienre. but anentity not organically coordinated in its activity with the otlrerpsychic functions. It behaves as if it were a larv unto itself, in-terfering in the life of the individual as if it were an alienelement; sometimes the interference is helpful, sometimes dis-turbing, if not actually destnrctive. lVe have, therefore, everycause to concern ourselves tvith these psychic entities andarrive at an understanding of horv they influence us.

If in what follorvs, I present the animus and its manifestations as realities, the reader must remember that I am sneak_ing of prlclric realiries., wh ich arc in( ommcnsurable u irh concrete realities but no less eflective for that reason. Here I shallattempt to present certain aspec$ of the animus without, how_ever, laying claim to a complete comprehension of this extraor,dinarily complex phenomenon. For in discussing rhe animuswe are dealing not only with an absolute, an immutable entity,but also with a spiritual process. I intend to limit myself hereto the ways in which the animus appears in its relation to theind ivid ual and to consciousness.

Conscious and Outward Manifestations of the Animus

The premise from which l start is that in the animus rveare dealing r,vith a masculine principle. But horv is this nrasculine principle to be characterized? Goethe makes Faust, rvhois occupied with the translation of the Gospel of John, askhimse lf if the passage, "In the beginnins was the Word," rvouldnot read better if it rvere, "In the beginnir.rg was potver," or


''l\lr:aning," and finally he has lrim write, "In the beginningw;rs the Deed." Witli these four expressions, rvhich are meantrr ) r( produce the Greek logos, the quintessence of the mascu-

lirrr: principle does indeed seem to be expressed. At the samc

tirrrr', rve find in them a progressive sequence, each stage havints-

its r cpresentative in life as well as in the development of the,rrrirrrrrs, Power corresponds very rvell to the first stage, therlccrI 1'ollorvs, then the rvord, and finally, as the Iast stage, mcan-

rrrs. One might better say instead of power, directed power;tlrrrt is rvill, because mere pon'er is not yct human, nor is itslriritual. This four-sidedness characterizing tlre logos prin-, ilrlc presupposes, as rve sec, an elcmcnt of consciousness, be-

r,rrrsc rvitlrout consciousness ncither rvill, rvord, deed, norrrrt rrrr ing is conceivable.

Just as there are men of outstanclinpi physical porver, men,,1 rlccds, men of words, and men of rvisdom, so, too, does the.rrrirrrrrs inage differ in accorclance rvith the rvoman's particu-l,rr sragc o[ dcvelopment or her natura] gifts, This image may

lx rr ilnsferred to a real man rvho comes by the animus rr-r]e

lx crrrsc of his resemblance to it; alternatively, it may appear

,rs;r rllcam or phantasy figurq; but since it represcnts a living

1,s1'r lrit: reality, it lends a delinite coloratiort from rvitlrin therr orr;rrr herself to all that she does, For the primitive woman,i'r tlr v(,llrq tvoman. or lor tlre primitive in erery rvoman. a

rrr.rr rlistinguished by physical prowess becomes an animuslrlirrrt. l l'pical examples arc the heroes o[ Iegend, or presentil,r\ sl)orls celebrities, corvboys, bull fighters, aviators, and so

,rr. lior'nyrre exactins womcn, tlle animus figule is a n-ran rvho

,rrr,rrrrplishcs dccrls, in the selrse that he alirects his porverr,'rr':rrrl sorrrctlrirrg ol grcat sigrtifir:ance. TIle transitions here

.rr c rrsrr:rlly rrol sllrrp, lrcr';trrsc potvcr and deed mutually con-

rlr tiorr orrt iu)()tlrcf. A ttltlt tvlto r'ttlcs over the "rvord" or over'rrrcrrrrirrt" r'(l)r'(scnls;u) (ss('lltiirlly intcllc<tttal ten(lency, l)e-

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(, rs( wor(l an(l nlcaning correspond par excellence to mentalr;rl)r( ilics. Such a man exemplifies the animus in the narrowerst rrsc, turrlcrstood as being a spiritual guide and as represenr_inu the irltellcctual gifts of the woman. It js at this stage, too,l,,r tlrc most pari. tltat the animus become, problematicalrcncc, we shall have to dwell on it lonsest.

Animus images representing the ,tages of power and deedare projected upon a hero figure. But there are also womenin whom this aspect of masculinity is already harmoniouslycoordinated with the feminine principle and lending it effec_tive aid. These are the active, energetic, brave, and forcefulrvomen. But also there are those in tvhom the iutegration hasfailerl. in rrhom ma.,culine belravior l,r, ou.r.,,n .rnd stropressed the feminine principle. These rre the orer enerseric,ruthless, brutal. men r\omen. tlre Xanrippes rvlro are nor onlyactive but aggressive. In many women, this primitive masculinity is a)ro expressed in rheir eroric life, and rlren rlreirapproach to love has a masculine aggressive character and isnot, as is usual in women, involved with and cletermined bvfeeling bur functions on ils orvn. apart from rhe resr of rlrepersonality, as happens predominantly .with men.

On the whole, however, it can be assumed that the moreprimitive forms of masculinity have already been assimilatedby women. Generally speaking, they have long ago found theirapplications in the feminine way of life, and there have lonsbeen women rvhose srrength of will. purposefulness. acriviry.and energy serve as helpful forces in their orherwise quitefcminine lir es. Tlre problem o[ tlre woman of today ,eemsrather to lie in her attitude to the animusJogos, to the mascu_line-intel I ectual element in the narrower sense; because theextension of consciousness in general, gTeater consciousness inall fields, seems to be an inescapable demand _ as rvell as agift - of our time. One expression of this is the fact that alons


rvitlr the discoveries and inventions of the last fifty years, we

lrrve also had the beginning of the so-called woman's move-

rr( trt, the struggle of women for equal rights rvith men. Hap-

;rily, rve have today survived the worst product of this struggle,

tlrt "bluestocking." Wornan has learned to see that she cannot

lrr'< ome like a man because first and foremost she is a rvoman

,rrrrl rnust be one. Horvever, the fact remains that a certain sun,,1 rnasculine spirit has ripened in \,voman's consciousness and

rrrrrst find its place and efiectiveness in her personality. Tolr.;rrn to knorv these factors, to coordinate them so that they

r rur play their part in a meaningful way, is an important partol t lre animus problem.

l, rom time to time we hear it said that there is no necessity

Irr wornan to occupy herself with spiritual or intellectualrrrttcrs, that this is only an idiotic aPing of manr or a com-

1x'titive drive betokening megalomania. Although this is

srrt cly true in many cases, especially of the phenomena at the

lrcginning of the rvoman's movementr nevertheless, as an

crplanation of the matter, it is not justified. Neither arlogance

|l()r presumption drives rrs to the audacity of wanting to be

I ilic God - that is, like man; we are not like Eve of old, luredl)y tlrc l)eauty of the fruit of the tree of knowledge, nor does

rlr( snake encourage us to enjoy it. No, there has come to us

s,rrrc:thing like a comnand; tve are conlronted rvith the neces-

sity ol biting into this apple, whether lve think it good to eat

,)r r()t, confronted rvith the fact that the paradise of natural

ncss an(l unconsciousness, in which many of us lvould onlyr,',, qlr,lll tarry. is gone forever.

'l llis, then, is how matters stand fundamentally, even if on

rlr( slrrlacc appcarances may sometimes be otherwise. Andlrccrrrrsc so siglrilicant a turning Point is concerned, we must

rrrt l)c irslollislrc(l at trnsttccessful efforts, and grotesque exag-

licrrtiorts, ttor allrttv orttsclvcs to bc rl:rtlntecl lly them. If the

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l)r()l)l(,nr is not faced, if woman does not meet adequatelv therlcrrrand for consciousness or intellectual activity, the animuslrc<:omes autonomous and negative, and works destructivelyon the individual herself and in her relations to other people.This fact can be explained as follorvs: if the possibility ofspiritual functioning is not taken up by the conscious mind,the psychic energy intended for it falls into the unconscious.and there activates the archetype of the animus. possessed ofthe energy that has flowed back into the unconscious, the ani-mus figure becomes autonomous, so powerful, indeed, that itcan overwhelm the conscious ego, and thus finally dominatethe whole personality. I must add here that I start with theview that in the human being there is a certain basic idea tobe fulfilled, just as, for instance, in an egg or a seed corn thereis already contained the idea of life destined to come fromit. Therefore I speak of a sum of available psychic energywhich is intended for spiritual functions, and ought to beapplied to them. Expressed figuratively in terms of economics,the situation is like that dealr with in a household budget, orother enterprise of some sort where certain sums of money areprovided for certain purposes. In addition, from time to timesums previously used in other ways will become available,either because they are no longer needed for those purposesor because they cannot otherwise be invested. In many respects,this is the case with the rvoman of today. In the first place, sheseldom finds satisfaction in the established religion, especiallyif she is a Protestant. The church which once to a large extentfilled her spiritual and intellectual needs no longer ofiers herthis satisfaction. Formerly, the animus, together with its asso-

ciated problems, could be transferred to the beyond (for tomany women the Biblical Father.God meant a metaphysical,superhuman aspect of the animus image), and as long as

spirituality could be thus convincingly expressed in the gener-


.rlly valid forms of religion, no conflict developed. Only nowrvlrcrr this can no longer be achieved, does our problem arise.

A hrrther reason for the existence of a problem regarding therlislxrsal of psychic energy is that through the possibility ofl,rr rlr control a considerable sum of energy has been freed. Itrr rkrrrbtful whether woman herself can rightly estimate howl,rrgc is this sum which was previously needed to maintain a

r r)l|srilnt state of readiness for her biological task,

A tlrird cause lies in the achievements of technology that\r lrst itute new means for so many tasks to which woman

lrrcviously applied her inventiveness and her creative spirit.W Ircr c she formerly blew up a hearth fire, and thus still accom'

lrlislrcrl the Promethean act, today she turns a gas plug or an

llcr rric:al switch and has no inkling of what she sacrifi.ces bytlrcsc practical novelties, nor what consequences the loss en-

t;rils. Iior everything not done in the traditional way will be

rlrrrrt: in a new way, and that is not altogether simple. There,n( rIrrnywomenwho, lvhen they have reached theplacewhererlr(.y :ire confronted by intellectual demands, say, "I wouldr.rtlrtr lrave another child," in order to escape or at least to

lx)srlx)ne the uncomfortable and disturbing demand. Butrr x rrr<'r or later a woman must accommodate herself to meet it,l,r tlrc biological demands naturally decrease progressively.rlt( r llre lirst half of life so that in any case a change of unavoidable, if she does not rvant to fall victim to a

rrcrrrrrsis or some other form of illness.l\forcover, it is not only the freed psychic energy that con-

Ir,rrts lrcr rvith a new task, but equally the aforementionedl.r rv ol t lre time-moment, the Aalros, to lvhich we are all subject

.rrrrl Irrun rvhich we cannot escape, obscure though its terms

.rlrl)( rr t() us to be. In fact, our time seems quite generally tor crlrrir c rr wi<lcrring of consciousness. Thus, in psychology, lve

Irrrvt rliscrrvcrcrl arr<l irre iuvestigating the unconscious; in

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l)lrysi(:s, wc havc becorne aware of phenomena and processes _r:rys :urcl waves, for instance _ rvhich up till nolv were imper_t:cptil>le and not part of our conscious knorvledge. New \,vorlds,with the laws rhat govern them, open up as, for example, thatof the arorn. Furthermore, telegraph, telephone, radio, andtechnically perfected instrumenrs of every sort bring remotethings near, expanding the range of our sense perceptionsover the whole earth and even far beyond it. In all of this, theextension and illumination of consciousness is expressed. Tocliscuss further the causes and aims of this phenomenon woulcllead us too far afield; I mention it only as a joint factor in theproblem which is so acute for the rvoman of today, tlte animusproblem.

The increase in consciousness irnplies a leading over ofpsychic energy into new paths. All culture, as rve knorv, depends on such a deflection, and the capacity to bring it aboutis rvhat distinguishes men from animals. Ilut this process in_volves great difficulties; indeed, it affects us almost like a sin.a misdeed, as is shorvn in such myths as the Fall of man, or thetheft of fire by Prometheus, and that is horv we may experience it in our o\,vn lives. Nor is this astonishing since it con_cerns the interruption or reversal of the natural course ofevents, a very clangerous venture. For this reason, this processhas alrvays been closely connected rvith religious ideas anclrrtes. Indeed, the religious mystery,.rvith its symbolical experi_ence of death and rebirth, alrvays means this mysterious andmiraculour pror esr o[ I ransformal ion.

As is evident in the nyths just mentioned concerning theFall of man and rhe stealing of fire by prometheus, it is thelogos - that is, knorvledge, consciousness, in a word _ thatlifts man above nature. But this achievement brings him intoa tragic position between animal and God. Because of it, lreis no longer the child of mother nature; he is driven out of


I ,.r r .r, lisr:, l)ut also, he is no god, because he is still tied inescap-rl,ly ro lris body and its natural lalvs, just as Prometheus was

l, r{ r ( (| to the rock. Although this painful state of suspension,, | | l,r'ir rll r orn between spirit and nature, has long bee n familiarr,' rr,ut, it is onlyrecently that woman has really begun to feelrlr, r orrllict. And with this conflict, rvhich goes hand in hand!\ rtlr jur increase of consciousness, lve come back to the animus

lrr,rlrl|rrr that eventually leads to the opposites, to nature and,l'r it ,rr)(l their harmonization.

I lorv rlo rve experience this problem? Horv do rve experiencerlr, slriritual principle? First of all, we become aware of it inrlr. orrlsirle world. The child usually sees it in the father, orrr ,r lx lson taking the place of the father; later, perhaps, in a

tr',rr lro or clder brother, husband, friend, hnally, also, in the,,lr1r'r tivc <locuments of the spirit, in church, state, and society

rr r t lr rr ll t heir institutions, as r'r,'ell as in tlre creations of science

.rrr'l llr( :[^ts. For the most part, direct access to tl]ese objectivel,,r r rs ol tlre spirit is not possible for a rvoman; shefindsitonlyt lr r ,

'r rglr rr rnan, rvho is her guide and intermediary. This guide

rrrrl irrlcrrucdiary then becomes the bearer or representative,,1 I lrl rrrrirnus image; in other rvords, the animus is projectedrr1,rr lrirrr. As long as the projection succeeds, that is, as longr', tlrc irrr:rge corresponds to a certain degree with the bearer, rro rcal conflict. On the contrary, this state of affairsrlr rrrs to lrc, in a certain sense, perfect, especially when the manr llr is l lrc spiritual intermediary is also at the same time per-r ( r\ r,(l rs rr lrrrrnan bcing to rvhom one has a positive, humanrll,rtiorrslrip. I[ such a projection can be permanently estab-

lr.,lr.rl tlris rright be callecl an ideal relationship, ideal because

rr rtlrorrt t rrnfli< t, l)ut the roman renrains unconscious. The1.. I rl',r r.nliry it i,i ro l,,rrqr'r fitting Io rerrtairr so unconsciolls

',r', rrr, lrrrrvt vcr', t() l)(' J)rovc(l lry thc cirr:umstancc that many

rl r()l rr()sl rvorrrctr rvlttt lrclicvc tlrcrtts<'lvcs tr> lre happy and

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content in what purports to be a perfect animus relationshipare troubled with nervous or bodily symptoms. Very oftenanxiety states appear, sleeplessness and general nervousness, orphysical ills such as headache and other pains, disturbancesof vision, and, occasionally, lung afiections. I know of several

cases in which the lungs became affected at a time when theanimus problem became acute, and were cured after the prob-Iem was recognized and understood as such.3 (Perhaps theorgans of breathing have a peculiar relationship to spirit, as is

suggested by the words animus or pneuma and Hauch,breath,or Geist, spirit, and therefore react with special sensitivity to

the processes of the spirit. Possibly any other organ could justas well be affected, and it is simply a question of psychic energywhich, finding no suitable application and driven back uponitself, attacks any rveak point.)

Such a total ransference of the animus image as that de'

scribed above creates, together rvith an apparent satisfactionand completeness, a kind of compulsive tie to the man in ques-

tion and a dependence on him that often increases to the pointof becoming unbeatable. This state of being fascinated byanother and wholly under his influence is rvell known underthe term "transference," whicl.r is nothing else than projection.However, projection means not only the transference of an

image to another person, but also of the activities that go withit, so that a man to rvhom the animus image has been trans-

ferred is expected to take over all the functions that have re-

mained undeveloped in the woman in question, whether the

thinking {unction, or the power to act, or responsibility towardthe outside rvorld. In turn, the rvoman upon whom a man has

projected his anima must feel for him, or make relationshipsfor him, and this symbiotic relationship is, in my opinion, the

real cause for the compulsive dependence that exists in these



But such a state of completely successful projection is usuallyrr()t of very long duration especially not if the woman is inrr r:lose relationship to the man in question. Then the incon-gluity between the image and the image-bearer often becomes

;rll too obvious. An archetype, such as the animus represents,

rvill never really coincide with an individual man, the less so

tlrc more individual that man is. Individuality is really ther rpposite of the archetype, for what is individual is not in anylviry typical but the unique intermixture of characteristics,

1x rssibly typical in themselves.

When this discrimination betrveen the image and the per-sorr sets in we become arvare, to our great confusion and dis-

ir l)lx)intment, that the man who seemed to embody our image

rl()(i not correspond to it in the least, but continually behaves

rlrritc differently from the way we think he should. At firstrvt pcrhaps try to deceive ourselves about this and often suc-

r rtrl rclatively easily, thanks to an aptitude for efiacing differ-lrrrcs, which we orre to blurred porvers of discrimination.( )lt( ntimes we try with real cunning to make the man be whatrvc tlrink he ought to represent. Not only do we consciouslycr< r't lirrce or pressure; far more frequently rve quite uncon-sr iorrsly lbrce our partner, by our behavior, into archetypal or.rrrirrrrrs reactions. Naturally, the same holds good for the manrrr lris attitude toward the woman. He, too, would like to see

rrr lrcr the image that floats before him, and by this wish, lvhichrvorks like a suggestion, he may bring it about that she does

rrot livc lrer real self but becomes an anima figure. This, and

r Ir(. lir( I tllat the anima ancl animus mutually constellate each

',tlrr.r (since an anima manifestation calls forth the animus,.rrrrl vitc vcrsa, producing a vicious circle very difHcult tolrrlrrli). Iorrns one of the r,vorst complications in the relationsl)( l rv( ( t) nlcn ancl worne n.

Ilrrt lry tlrc time tlrc incongruity between thc man and the

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inrinnrs ligrrle has been discovered, a woman is already in therrrirlst of thc conflict, and there remains nothins for her to dcrlrrl t,) (lrry through to completion the proces, of distrimi.rrating be tween the image within and the man outsicle. Hercwe come to what is most essentially meaningful in the animus problem, namely, the masculine_intellectual componenrwithin the woman herself. It rsep5 16 me that to relate lo thiscomponentJ to know it, and to incorporate it into the rest ofthe personaliry, are central elements of this problem, whichis perhaps the most important of all those (oncerninq rhewoman of today. That the problem has to do wjrh a naiuralpredisposition, an organic factor belonging to the indiviclu_ality and intended to function, explains why the animus isable to attract psychic energy to itself until it becomes anoverwhelming and autonomous fi gure,

It is probable that all organs or organic tendencics attracrto themselves a certain amount of energy, which means readiness for functioning, and that when a particular organ receivesan insuflicient amount of energy rhis fact is made knorvn bythe manilesrarion of r]jsturbanccs or by tlre rlevelonment olsymptoms. Applying tlris idea ro rlre psyche. I rvoulcl conr luclefrom the presence of a porverful animus figure _ a so called"possession by the animus" - that the person in question givestoo little attention to her orvn masculine,intellectual losostendency. and lras eirlrer rleveloped and applied it insuffr-ciently or not in the right ivay. Perhaps this sounds paradoxi_cal because, seen from the outside, it appears as if it were thefeminine principle which is not taken sufficiently into account,since the behavior of such women seems on the surface to betoo masculine and suggests a lack of femininity. But in themasculinity brought to vierv, I see more of a symprom, a signthat something masculine in tlre woman claims attention. It istrue that what is primarily feminine is overrun and repressed


l)y l lre autocratic entrance upon the scene of this masculinity,l,rrt the feminine element can only get into its right place by.r (lctour that includes coming to terms with the masculinc

l.r( lor, the animus,'t o busy ourselves simply in an intellectual or objectively

rrrrrsr:uline way seems insufficient, as can be seen in nanyrv,rrnen who have completed a course of study and practice a

lrcrctofore masculine, intellectual calling, but who, nonethe-lcss, have never come to terms with the animus problem. Such

.r rrrrsculine training and way of life may well be achieved by

rlcrrtification with the animus, but then the feminine side is

lclt out in the cold. What is really necessary is that femininerrrtcllectuality, logos in the woman, should be so fitted intotlrt nature and life of the woman that a harmonious cooPera

tiorr between the feminine and masculine factors ensues and

11 ;r.rn is condemned lo a shadowy exiilence.'I lre first stage on the right road is, therefore, the withdrawal

,l rlrc projection by recognizing it as such, and thus freeing itl r,rrr tlre object. This first act of discrimination, simple as it||r.ry sccm, nonetheless means a difficult achievement and often,r 1r:rirrlul renunciation. Through tltis rvithdrawal of the pro-

il, tion we recognize that rve are not dealing with an entity,rrrtsirlc ourselves but a quality rvithin; and rve see before us

rlr( rrsk o[ learning to knorv the nature and eftect of this factor,

tlris "rrr:rrt in us," in order to distinguish him from ourselves.

II rlris is not done, we are identical with the animus or pos-

,,r.isr.rl lry it, a state that creates the most unlvholesome eftects.

I or rvlrcn the feminine side is so overwhelmed and pushed

rrr{) llrc background by the anitnus, there easily arise depres-.,r,,rrs, gcrrcral dissatisfaction, and loss of interest in life. These

.rrr' :rll intclligible syrrptoms poiDting to the fact that one

lr,rll ol tlr<: pcrsonality is partly rc-rbbed of life by the encroach-

rrrrrl ol l lrc lttintus.

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Ilcsirlcs tlris, the animus can interpose itself in a disturbirrgrvry r)('rrvccn oneself and other people, between oneself andI ilc in gcneral. It is very diflicult to recognize such a possessionirr orreself, all the more difficult the more complete itjs. There_fore it is a great help to observe the effect one has on otherpeople, and to judge from their rvhether these carrpossibly have been called forth by an unconscious animrrsidentification. This orientation derived from other people isan invaluable aid in the laborious procers _ often bevondone's individual powers - of clearly iistinguishing the ani_mus and assigning it to irs riglrtful place. Indeed, I ihink thatwithout relationship to a person rvith respect to rvhom it rsposible to orient oneself again and again, it is almost impos-sible ever to free oneself from tlte demonic clutch of the ani-mus. In a state of identificarion with the animus, we thinL,say, or do something in the full conviction that it is we lvhoare doing it, rvhile in reality,.rvithout our havins been arvareof it. the animus lras L,een speaLirrg rlrrouglr us.

Often it is very difficult to realize rhat a though r or opinionhas been dictated by the animus and is not orra,, orur., _or,particular conviction, because the anirnus has at its commanda sort of aggressive authoriry and porver of suggestion. Itderives this authority from its connectron .ivrth the universa,mind, but the force of suggestion it exercises is due to woman,sown passivity in thinking and her corresponding lack of criti_cal abiliry. Suclr opinions or concepls. usually brouglrr outwith great aplomb, are especially characteristic of the arimus.They are characteristic in that, corresponding to the principleof the logos, they are generally valid concepts or ruths ivhi;h.though rhe) mav be quire true in rlremselves. do nor fir in rhegiven instance because they fail to consider rvhat is indiviclualand specific in a situation. Ready-made, incontrovertiblv valirljudgments of this kind are reallv only applirrblc in nrdtlre-


Drrticsr where two times two is always four. But in life they do||()t apply for there they do violence, either to the subjectrrrrrler discussion or to the person being addressed, or even totlrc woman herself who delivers a linal judgment withoutlrrn ing taken all of her own reactions into account,

'l'he same sort of unrelated thinking also appears in a manrllrcn he is identified with reason or the logos principle andrlrx's not himself think, but lets "it" think. Such men are natu-

r rrlly especially well-suited to embody the animus of a woman.

llut I cannot go into this further because I am concerned here

, rr lusively with feminine psychology.( )ne of the most important ways that the animus exPresses

itst ll', then, is in making judgments, and as it happens withjrrr lgments, so it is with thoughts in general. From within, they

r r orvcl upon the rvoman in already complete, irrefutable forms.( )r, if they come from without, she adoPts them because they

st.rrr to het somehow convincing or attractive, But usually she

It t ls no urge to think through and thus really to undersmnd

rlr( ideas which she adopts and, perhaps, even propagates tur-I Ir( r. Her undeveloped power of discrimination results in her

rrrccting valuable and worthless ideas with the same enthu-rirrsrn or with the same respect, because anything suggestive ofrrrirrrl impresses her enormously and exerts an uncanny fasci-

nirrion upon her. This accounts for the success of so many

rrvirrrllers who often achieve incomprehensible efiects with a

r'rt o[ pseudo-spirituality. On the other hand, her lack of,lisr r iurination has a good side; it makes the woman unpreiu-,lircrl ancl therefore she frequently discovers and aPpraises

slrir itrral values more quickly than a man, whose developed

, r itir irl porvet tends to make him so distrustful and prejudicedrlrrt it olten takes him considerable time to see a value which

llsr 1r'cirrrliccd persons have long since recognized.'llrr.rr':rl tlrirrkingol rvontcll (llefel'here torvomen in gen-

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( r;r l, IDolring \.vell that rhere are many far above this levelrvho have already differentiated their thinking and their spirit-ual natures to a high degree) is preeminently practical andapplied. It is something we describe as sound common sense,

and is usually directed to what is close at hand and personal.To this extent it functions adequately in i$ own place anddoes not actually belong to what we mean by animus in thestricter sense. Only when woman's mental power is no longerapplied to the mastering of daily tasks but goes beyond, seek-

ins a new field of activity, does the animus come into play.In general, it can be said that feminine mentality manifests

an undeveloped, childlike, or primitive character; instead ofthe thirst for knorvledge, curiosity; instead of judgment, preju-dice; instead of thinking, imagination or dreaming; instead ofwill, wishing.

Where a man takes up objective problems, a woman con-tents herself rvith solving riddles; where he battles for knowl-edge and understanding, she contents herself with faith orsuperstition, or else she makes assumptions. Clearly, these arewell marked pre-stages that can be shown to exist in the mindsof children as r,vell as in those of primitives. Thus, the curiosityof children and primitives is familiar to us, as are also the rolesplayed by belief and superstition. In the Edda there is a riddle-contest between the wandering Odin and his host, a memorialof the time when the masculine mind was occupied with riddle-guessing as woman's mind is still today. Similar stories havecome down to us from antiquity and the Middle Ages. Wehave the riddle of the Sphinx, or of C)edipus, the hair-splittingof the sophists and scholastics.

So-called wishful thinking also cor-responds to a definitestage in the development of the mind. It appears as a motifin fairy tales, often characterizing something in the past, as

when the stories refer to "the time when wishins was still


lrr'lpltrl." The magic practice of wishing that something rvouldlx l:rll a person is founded on the same idea. Grimm, in his(ilrrrran mythology, points to the connection between wish-rrg, iruagining, and thinking. According to him,

'';\rr lncient Norse narne lor \\roran or Odin seems to be Oski.r \\tish, and the Valkyries were also called Wish Maidens. Odin,tlrl wirrdgod and u'anderer, the lord of the army ol spirits, therrr'( ntor of runes, is a typical spirit god, but of a prirnitive form.,till rrcar to nature."

\s srrr lr, hc is lorcl of wishes. He is not only the giver of allrlr,rt is good arrd perfcct as comprehended under wishing, but,rl:,o ir is he lvho, rvhen evoked, can create by a wish. Grimm..rr'. \\ ishing is the nrearuring. outpouring. giving. r reating

1r,'rvr,r. It is the power that shapes, imagines, thinks, and is

rlrr t lore imagination, idea, form." And in another place he

rvritt's: "In Sanskrit 'rvish' is significantly called manoraLha,

rlrc rvlrcel of the mind - it is the wish that turns the wheel

ol tlrought."I lrt' rvoman's animus in its superhuman, divine aspect is

, ,,rrrp:rr':rble to suclr a spirit and rvind-god. We find the animus

rr rr sinrilar form in dreams and phantasies, and this wish-

r lr,rr:r( te r is peculiar to feminine ttrinking. If we bear in mindrlr.rr lx)wer to imagine means to man nothing less than the

| ,r,\!(.r to make at will a mental image of anything he chooses,

.rrrr I I lr:rt this image, though immaterial, cannot be denied

rt,rlity, then rve can undersmnd how it is that imagining,t lr r n I irrg, r,vishing, and creating have been rated as equivalents.

I slx r irrlly in a relatively unconscious condition, where outer,rrrl irrrcr rcality are not sharply distinguished but flow into,rrr,;rrrorlrcr, it is easily possible that a spiritual reality, that

r\. ,r tlr)llglrt or an irlage, (itll l)e taken as concretely real. Irl

1,rrrrritivcs, ((x), IIl(r('is trl lrt lirrrttcl this e<lttivalence lletlveett

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ourcr (oncrete and inner spiritual reality. (Livy-Bruhla givesrrrany examples of this, but it would take us too far afield to$ry more about it here.) The same phenomenon is found veryr:learly expressed in feminine mentality.

We are astonished to discover, on closer inspection, howoften the thought comes to us that things must happen in a

certain way, or that a person who interests us is doing this orthat, or has done it, or will do it. We do not pause to comparethese intuitions with reality. We are already convinced oftheir truth, or at least are inclined to assume that the mereidea is true and that it corresponds to reality. Other phantasystructures also are readily taken as real and can at times evenappear in concrete form,

One of the animus activities most difficult to see through liesin this field, namely, the building up of a wish-image of one-self. The animus is expert at sketching in and making plausiblea picture that represents us as r{/e rvoulcl like to be seen, forexample, as the "ideal lover," the "appealing, helpless child,"the "selfless handmaiden," the "extraordinarily original per-son." the "one who is really born to something better," andso on. This activity naturally lends the animus power over us

until rve voluntarily, or perforce, make up our minds to sacri-fice the higlily colored picture and see ourselves as we really are.

\/ery frequently, feminine activity also expresses itself inwhat is largely a restrospectively oriented pondering over whatu'e ought to have done difierently in life, and horv we oughtto have done it; or, as if under compulsion, we make up stringsof causal connections. We like to call this thinking; though,on the contrary, it is a form of mental activity that is strangelypointless and unproductive, a form that really leads only toself tortnre. Here, too, there is again a characteristic failureto discriminate benveen rvhat is real and what has been thoushtor imasined.


We could say, then, that feminine thinking, in so far as it is

rrot occupied pmctically as sound common sense, is really nottlrinking, but, rather, dreaming, imagining, lvishing, and fear-rrrg (i.e., negative wishing). The power and authority of the,rrrirnus phenomenon can be partly explained by the primitiverrrcrrtal lack of differentiation between imagination and real-r t y. Since what belongs to mind - that is, thought - possesses

,r I I lrc same time the character of indisputable reality, what the,rrrirnus says seems also to be indisputably true.

Arrd now we come to the magic of rvords. A word, also, justI r lic an idea, a thought, has the effect of reality upon undiffer-

rriirted minds. Our Biblical myth of creation, for instance,

rr,lrcre the world grows out of the spoken rvord of the Creator,rs ;rn cxpression of this. The animus, too, possesses the magic

1u rrvcr of words, and therefore men who have the gift of oratoryr,rr cxert a compulsive power on women in both a good and.rrr cvil sense. Am I going too far when I say that the magic oftlrt word, the art of speaking, is the thing in a man throughrvlr i<:h a woman is most unfailingly caught and most frequently,lclrrrlecl? But it is not woman alone who is under the spellr rl rvord-magic, the phenomenon is prevalent everywhere. Thelrr rly runes of ancient times, Indian mantras, prayers, and magicl,rrrrrrrlas of all sorts down to the technical expressions and.,lrg;rns of our own times, all bear rvitness to the magic powero| spirit that has become word.

llorvever, it can be said in general that a woman is moresrrsr r'lrtible to such magic spells than a man of a correspond-rrrg r rrltural level. A man has by nature the urge to understandI lr( r l)irrgs he has to deal with; small boys show a predilectionl,rr prrlling their toys to pieces to find out rvhat they look likerrrsirlt or horv they work. In a rvoman, this urpie is mudr less

1 ,r ,,r rorr rrce<I. Slre can easily rvork rvith instruments or rnaclrines

\\'illrorrl its evcr t-rt:r:ulring to lrer to want to study or uncler-

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lil;ur(l tlrcir construction. Similarly, she can be impressed byir sign ilicant-sounding word without having grasped its exactr)rcilnllrg. A man is much more inclined to track dolvn therllcanrng.

The most characteristic manifestation of the animus is norin a configured image (Gestalt) but rather in words (/ogosalso means word). It comes to us as a voice commenting orrcverl situarion in which we find ourselves. or imparting!en_erally applicable rules of behavior. Often this is how we firstperceive the animus to be different from the ego, long beforeit has crystallized into a personal figure. As far as I have ob.served, this voice expresses itself chiefly in two ways. First,we hear from it a critical, usually negative comment on everymovement, an exact examination of all motives and intentions,which naturally always causes feelings of inferiority, and tendsto nip in the bud all iniriarive and every wish for sclf_expres_sion. From time to time, this same voice may also dispenseexaggerated praise, and the result of these extremes of luclg-ment is that one oscillates to and fro between the consciousnessof complete futility and a blown-up sense of one's own valueand importance. The animus' second way of speaking is con-fined more or less exclusively to issuing commands or prohi_bitions. and to pronouncing generally accepred viewpoinrs.

It seems to me that two importanr sides of the logos functionare expressed here. C)n the one hand, we have discriminating,judging. and understanding: on (he orher. rhe abstracting andsetting up of general larrs. Wc could say, perhaps. rhat wherethe first sort of functioning prevails the animus figure appearsas a single person, while if the second prevails, it appears asa plurality, a kind of council. Discrimination and judgmentare mainly individual, while the setting up and abstractingof laws presupposes an agreement on the part of many, andis therefore more appropriately expressed by a group.


Il is well known that a really creative faculty of mind is a

r ,r r t' t hing in woman. There are many women who have devel-

,,1xrl their powers of thinking, discrimination, and criticismto ;r high degree, but there are very few who are mentallyr r crrl ive in the way a man is. It is maliciously said that woman

rr so l:rcking in the gift of invention, that if the kitchen spoon

lr.r<l not been invented by a man, we would today still be stir-I irll the soup with a stick!

llre creativity of woman finds its expression in the sphere

,'l living, not only in her biological functions as mother butrrr tlrc shaping of life generally, be it in her activity as edu-

r,rtor, in her role as companion to man, as mother in the home,,)r in sorne other form. The development of relationships is

r'l primary importance in the shaping of life, and this is the

r r':r I lrclcl of feminine creative power. Among the arts, the

rlrrrrrn is outstandingly the one in rvhich woman can achieve

,,1rr:rlity with man. In acting, people, relationships, and Iife.rr c given form, and so woman is there just as creative as man.

\\/( (1)rre upon creative elements also in the products of the

rrrrrrlrscious, in the dreams, phantasies, or phrases that come

\l)('nl:rDeously to women. These products often containrlr()rrfllrts, views, truths, of a purely objective, absolutely im-

1,r'r sorral nature. The mediation of such knorvledge and such

r .rrr< rrts is essentially the function of the higher animus.

Ir) (lrcams we olten find quite abstract scientiflc symbols

rlrirlr:rrc hardly to be interpreted personally but represent, '1, i(

( t ivc findings or ideas at which no one is more astonished,

I'i.r lrrl)s, tlran the dreamer herself. This is especially strikingrr \v()rlcn who havc a poorly developed thinking function or,r lirrritcrl arnount of culture. I know a woman in whom think-rrr1,, is tlre "infcrior function,"6 rvhose dreams often mention

l,rrrlrlt rus ol aitronomy and physics, and also refer to technical

rtr\h lltncr)ts ol illl $orts. Another wotnan, quite nonlational in

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type, when reproducing unconscious contenrs, drew strictlygeometric figures, crystal-like structures, such as are found intext books on geometry or mineralogy. To others still, theanimus brings views of the world and of life that go far beyondtheir conscious thinking and shorv a creative quality that can-not be denied.

However, in the field where the creative activity of rvomanflowers most characteristically, that is, in human relationships,the creative factor springs from feeling coupled with intuitionor sensation, more than from mind in the sense of logos. Here,the animus can be actually dangerous, because it injects itselfinto the relationship in place of feeling, thus making related-ness difficult or impossible. It happens only too frequentlythat instead of understanding a situation - or another person

- through feeling and acting accordingly, we think somethingabout the situation or the person and offer an opinion in placeof a human reaction. This may be quite conect, well-inten-tioned, and clever, but it has no effect, or the wrong effect,because it is right only in an objective, factual way. Subjec-tively, humanly speaking, it is rvrong because in that momentthe partner, or the relationship, is best served not by discern-ment or objectivity but by sympathetic feeling. It very oftenhappens that such an objective attitude is assumed by a r{omanin the belief that she is behaving admirably, but the effect is

to ruin the situation completely. The inability to realize thatdiscernment, reasonableness, and objectivity are inappropriatein certain places is often astonishing. I can only explain thisby the fact that women are accustomed to think of the mascu-

line rvay as something in itself more valuable than the femi-nine way and superior to it. We believe a masculine objectiveattitude to be better in every case than a feminine and personalone. This is especially true of women who have already at'tained a certain level of consciousness and an aonreciation oIrational values.


llere I come to a very importance difierence betrveen the;rrrirnus problem of the woman and the anima problem of therrrarr, a difference which seems to me to have met rvith toolirtlc attention. When a man discovers his anima and has come

r(, tcrms with it, he has to take up something whicli previouslysccrnecl inferior to him. It counts for little that naturally the

,trirna figure, be it image or human, is fascinatingly attractiverrrrrl hence appears valuable. Up to now in our rvorld, the femir r irrc principle, as compared to the masculine, has allvays stood

lol something inferior. We or.rly begin at present to render itjrrstice. Revealing expressions are, "only a girl," or, "a boy

,lot'sn't do that," as is often said to boys to suggest that theitlrt lravior is contemptible. Then, too, our laws shorv clearlylr, 'rv widely the concept of l'oman's inferiority has prevailed.llvcn norv in many places the lar'v frankly sets the man above

rlrc woman, gives him greater privileges, makes him her guard-

irrrr,lnd so on. As a result, rvhen a man enters into relationshiprlitlr his anima he has to descend from a height, to overcome

,r r('sistance - that is, his pride by acknowledging that she

is tlrc "sovereign Lady" (Herrin) as SPitteler called her, or, inll ir lcr Haggard's rvords, "She rvho-must-be-obeyed."

Witlr a rvoman the case is dif{erent. We do not refer to the

;rrrirnus as "He-who-must-be-obeyed," but rather as the oppo-

sitr', Irccause it is far too easy for the tvoman to obey the author-

it y ol the animus - or the man - in slavish servility. Even

t lr rrrgh she may think otherrvise consciously, the idea that rvhat

is rrurs<:uline is in itself more valuable than rvhat is feminineis lrorn in her blood. This does much to enhance ttre porver

,l tlrt animus. What rve rvomen have to overcome in our rela-

ri()n r() dre animus is not pride btrt lack of self-confidence and

tlr( rcsist:u)rc ol incrtia. For rts, it is not as thouglr lve had

r,) (l( r)rcir1) orrtsclvcs (ttrtlcss wc have lreen identified with the

.rrrirrrrs), lrrrt rrs il r,r'lratl to lilt otlrsclves. In tlris, lve often lirr' l;rr k ol trrtttttgt illl(l sll('llglll rll rvill. It sccllls to lls a


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prcsumption to oppose our own unauthoritative convictionto those judgments of the animus, or the man, which claim ageneral validity. For a woman to work herself up to a pointof such apparently presumptuous spiritual independence oftencosts a great deal, especially because it can so easily be misunderstood or misjudged. But rvithout this sort of revolt, nomatter what she has to suffer as a consequence, she will neverbe free from the power of the tyrant, never come to find her.self. Viewed from the outside, it often seems to be just theother way round; because all too frequently one is aware onlyof an overweening assurance and aplomb, and very littlemodesty or lack of confidence is evident. In reality, this defiantand self-assured, or even contenrious attitude, should be di-rected against the animus, and is so intendecl at times, butgenerally it is the sign of a more or less complete identificationwith ir.

Not only in Europe do lve suffer from this now superannu-ated veneration of men, this overvaluation of the masculine.In America, too, where it is customary to speak of a cult ofwoman, the attitude does not seem to be fundamentally differ-ent. An American woman physician of wide experience has

told me that all her women patients sufler from a depreciationof their own sex, and that with all of them she has to drivehome the necessity of giving the feminine its due value. Onthe other hand, there are extremely few men who undervaluetheir own sex; they are, on the contrary, for the most partextremely proud of it. There are many girls who would gladlybe men, but a youth or man who would like to be a girl wouldbe looked upon as almost perverse.

The natural result of this situation is that a woman's posi-tion with respect to her animus is quite different from a man'srelation to his anima. And because of this difierence in atti-tude, many phenomena which the man cannot understand as


1',rrrrllel to his anima experience, and vice. versa, are to be,nr r ibcd to the fact that in these problems the rask of the man,r rrr I tlre woman are different.

'I o be sure, the woman does not escape sacrifice. Indeed, forlrr to l)ecome conscious means the giving up of her specifi-,.rlly Ieminine power. For by her unconsciousness, wornancrcrls a magical influence on man, a charm that lends her

; n rrvt:r over him, Because she feels this power instinctively ancl

rlocs not wish to lose it, she often resists to the utmost the

l,r(xcss of becoming conscious, even though what belongs totlrc spirit may seem to her extremely worth sftiving for. Many\!()nrcn even keep themselves artificially unconscious solelylo rrvoid making this sacrifice. It must be admitted that ther,,,rrran is very often backed up in this by the man. Nlany ment,rkc pleasure in woman's unconsciousness. They are bent on,,1'p''sing her development of greater ronsciousness in ercry

1 u,ssilrle way, because it seems to them uncomfortable and

r r |l('cessafy.

A rrother point which is often overlooked and wliich I wouldlrlic lo mention lies in the function of the animus in contrastti, rl)irt of the anima. We usually say offhand that animus and., r r irrrr are the mediators between the unconscious contents and, ,

'r rsciousness, meaning by this that both do exactly the same

rlrirrg. 'Iihis is indeed true in a general way, but it seems im-

lll'r riUrr to me to point out the difference in the roles playedI'y tlrc lnimus and the anima. The transmission of the un-, , rr rsr iolrs contents in the sense of making them visible is the

'1'r.r i;rl role of the anima. It helps the man to perceive these

,rtlrcrlvisc obscure things. A necessary condition for this is a

.,or t ol rlirnming oI consciousness; that is, the establishment

'l :r rrrrre lcnrininc consciousness, less sharp and clear thanrrr,rrr's, lrul orrc wlritJr is tlrus able to perceive in a rvider fieldtlruBs llrirt irrc still slr;r(lowy. Wonran's gift as seer, her intui-

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tive faculty, has always been recog-nized. Not having her visionbrought to a focus gives her an awareness of rvhat is oltscureand the power to see rvhat is hidden from a keener eye. Thisvision, this perception of what is otlrerwise invisible, is madepossible {or the man by rhe anima.

With the animus, the emphasis does not lie on mere percep-tion - which as was said has alrvays been rvoman's gift buttrue to the nature of the logos, the stress is on knolvledge, andespecially on understanding. It is the function of the animusto give the meaning rather than the imasc.

It would be a mistake to think that rr'e are making use ofthe animus if we turn ourselves over to passive phantasies. Wemust not forget that as a rule it is no achievement for a won)anto give rein to her powers of phantasy; non-rational happen-ings or images whose meaning is not understood seem some-thing quite natural to her; while to the man, occuparion rviththese things is an achievemerlt, a sort of sacrifice of reason, a

descent from the light into darkness, from the clear into theturbid. Only with difliculty cloes he say to himself that all theincomprehensible or even apparently senscless contents of theunconscious may, nonetheless, have a value. Moreover, thepassive attitude rvhich visions demancl accorcls little with theactive nature of a man. To a rvoman, this does not seem diffi-cult; she has no reservations against the non rational, no needto find at once a meaning in everything, no clisinclination toremaining passive while thinss sweep over her. For rvomento whom the unconscious is not easily accessible, rvho only findentrance to its contents n'ith difliculty, the animus can becomemore of a hindrance than a help if it tries to understand andanalyze every image that comes up before it can be properlyperceived. Only after these contents have entered conscious-ness and perhaps already taken form ought the animus toexert its special influence. Then, incleed, its aid is invaluable,becausc it helps us to understan<l and to fincl a meaning.


Yet sometimes a meaning is communicatecl to us directlylrorn the unconscious, not through images or syrnbols, butIlrlough flashes of knowledge already formulatccl in words.'l lris, indeed, is a very characteristic form of expression of thcrrrrimus. Yet it is often dificult to discover rvhether rve arcrlc:rling with a familiar, generally valid, and hence collectiveolrinion, or lvith the result of individual insight. In order tolrc clear about this, conscious judgment is again reeded, as

rvcll as exact discrimination between oneself and the anitrtus.

The Animus as it Appcars in the Imagesof the Unconscious

Having tried to show in the foregoing how the animus mani-l( sls itself ounvardly and in consciousness, I would like now

to discuss how the images of the unconscious represent it, and

lrorv it appears in dreams and phantasies, Learning to recog-

rrizc this figure and holding occasional conversations andr lcbates with it are further important steps or1 our way to dis-

r r iminating betlveen ourselves and the animus. The recogni-ti(,1) of the animus as an image or figure within the psyche

rrr;rr ks the beginning of a nerv difhculty. This is due to itsrrrrrrifoldness. We hear from men that the anima almost always

rrppcars in quite definite forms which are more or less the

s:rrne in all men; it is mother or loved one, sister or daughter,ristress or slave, priestess or rvitch; upon occasion it appears

\\'illr contrasting characteristics, liglit and dark, helpful andr l('structive, norv as a noble, and now as an ignoble being.

()u thc contrary, for women the animus appears either as

:r plurality of rncn, as a group oI fathers, a council, a court,,rr sorrrc otlrr:r' gatlrerillli ol wise nrcn, or else as a ligirtning,ltlrDgc artist wl)o cart Iss I)]c :rIry lclrltt ;ltrd rtrakes extensive

rrst ol tlris al.rility.

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I explain this difierence in the following way: Man hasrcally experienced tvoman only as mother, loved one, and soon, that is, always in ways related to himself. These are thelorms in which woman has presented herself, the forms inwhich her fate has always been carried out. The life of man,on the contrary, has taken on more manifold forms, becausehis biological task has allowed him time for many other acrivi-ties. Corresponding to the more diversified field of man'sactivitv, rlre animus rrn appear as a representative or masterof any sort of ability or knowledge. The anima figure, how-ever, is characterized by the fact that all of its forms are atthe same time forms of relationship. Even if the anima appearsas priestess or witch, the figure is always in a special relation-ship to the man lvhose anima it embodies, so that it eitherinitiates or bewitches him. We are again reminded of RiderHaggard's Slze, where the special relationship is even repre-sented as being centuries old.

But as has been said, the animus figure does not necessarilyexpress a relationship. Corresponding to the factual orienta-tion of man and characteristic of the logos principle, this figurecan come on the scene in a purely objective, unrelated way, as

sage, judge, artist, aviator, mechanic, and so on. Not infre,quently it appears as a "stranger." Perhaps this form in par-ticular is the most characteristic, because, to the purely feminine mind, the spirit stands for what is strange and unknown.

The ability to assume different forms seems io be a charac-teristic quality of spirit; like mobility, the power to rraversegreat distances in a short time, it is expressive of a qualitywhich thought shares with light. This is connected with thervish-form of thinking already mentioned. Therefore, the ani-mus often appears as an aviator, chaufieur, skier, or dancer,when lightness and swiftness are to be emphasized. tsoth ofthese characteristics, transmutability and speed, are found in


rrr;rny myths and fairy tales as attributes of gods or magicians.lvotan, the wind-god and leader of the army of spirits, has

rrllcady been mentioned; Loki, the flaming one, and N{ercury,rvith the winged heels, also represent this aspect of the logos,

its living, moving, immaterial quality rvhich, rvithout fixedrlrralities, is to a certain extent only a dynamism expressing the

;xrssibility of form, the spirit, as it rvere, that "blorvetl.r whereir listeth."

In dreams or phantasies, the animus appears chiefly in theligtrre of a real man: as father, lover, brother, teacher, judge,

slllc; as sorcerer, artist, philosopher, scholar, builder, monk(t specially as a Jesuit); or as a trader, aviator, chaufieur, and

ro forth; in short, as a man distinguished in some way by

rrrcntal capacities or other masculine qualities. In a positive

scrrse, he can be a benevolent father, a fascinating lover, an

rrrrderstanding friend, a superior guide; or, on the other hand,

lrc can be a violent and ruthless tyrant, a cruel task master,

rrroralist and censor, a seducer and exploiter, and often, also,

rr pseudo-hero who fascinates by a mixture of intellectuallrrilliance and moral irresponsibility. Sometimes he is repre-

s(.nted by a boy, a son or a young friend, especially when the

rvoman's own masculine component is thus indicated as beingirr a state of becoming. In many rvomen, as I have said, the

;rrrimus has a predilection for appearing in a plural form as

rr <:ouncil which passes judgment on everything that is happen-

irrg, issues precepts or prohibitions, or announces generally

rrt r:cpted ideas.6 Whether it appears most often as one Personwirlr a changing mask or as manv persons at the same lime

rray depend on the natural gifts of the woman in question,( )r' on the phase of her develoPment at the moment.

I cannot enter here into all the manifold, personal, phe-

rrorrrcnal forms of the animus, and therefore content myself

witlr a scries of dreams and phantasies wlrich show how it pre-

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sents itself to the inner eye, how it appears in the light of thedream-world. These are examples in which the archetypal char-acter of the animus figures is especially clear, and rvhich atthe same time point to a development. The figures in thisseries of dreams appeared to the tvoman concerned at a timewhen independent mental activity had become a problem, andthe animus image had begun to detach itself from the personupon rvhom it had been projected.

There appeared then in a dream a bird-headed monster whosebody was just a distcnded sac or bladder able to take on any andevery form. This monster was said to have been formerly in possession of the man upon whom the animus was projected, and thewoman was warned to protect herself against it because it likedto devour people, and if this happened, the person was not killedouftight but had to continue living inside the monster.

The bladder form pointed to something still in an initialstage - only the tread, the characteristic organ for an animus,was differentiated. It rvas the head of a creature of the air;for the rest, any shape could arise. The voracity indicated thata need for extension and development existed in this stillundifferentiated entity. The attribute of greediness is illumi-nated by a passage from the Khanclogya Upanishad,T whichdeals rvith the nature of Brahma. It is said there:

"The wind is in ruth the All-Devourer, for when the ftre cliesout it goes into the wind, when the sun sets, it goes into the wind,when the moon scts, it goes into the wind, when the waters dry up,they go into the wind, for the wind consumes them all. Thus it is

with respect to the divinity. And now with respect to thc sclf. Thebreath is in truth the All'Devourer, Ior when a man sleeps, speechgoes into breath, the eye goes into breath, the ear too, and thernanas,lot the breath consumes them all. These then are the twoAll-Devourcrs; wind among the gods, and breath among livingmen."


'fogether with this bird'headed creature of the air there,rp1>cared to the woman a sort of fire spirit, an elementaryll ing consisting only of flame and in p€rpetual motion, callinglrirrrself the son of the "lower mother." Such a mother figure,ir | ( ontrast to a heavenly, Iight mother, embodies the primor'rlirrl feminine as a power that is heavy, dark, earth-bound, a

lxrrver versed in magic, now helpful, now witch-like and un-r:tlrny, and often actually destructive. Her son, then, woultllx rr chthonic fire'spirit, recalling Logi or Loki of northernrrlthology, rvho is represented as a giant endowed with cre-

irtive power and at the same time as a sly, seductive rascal,

lirlcr on the prototype of our familiar devil. In Greek myth-olouy, Hephaestus, god of the fire of the earth, corresponds to

lr irr, but Hephaestus in his activity as srnith points to a con-

tr ()lled fire, rvhile the northern Loki incorporates a more ele

rr( ntary, undirected force of nature. This earth fire-spirit, thes,,rr of the lorver mother, is close to rvoman and familiar to

lrcr. He expresses himself positively in practical activity, par-

tir rrllrly in the handling of material and in its artistic treat-

rr( rt. FIe is expressed negatively in states of tension or explo-siorrs of affect, and often, in a dubious and calamitous rvay,

l){. rrcts as confederate to the primordial feminile in us, be-

,,rrrring the instigator or auxiliary force in rvhat are generally

rcr rrecl "feminine devils' or witches' arts." He could be charac-

lcr izcrl as a lorver or inferior logos, in contrast to a higher lormrrlrillr appeared as the birdheaded air creature and rvhicllr r r lcsponds to the rvind and-spirit-god, Wotan, or to the

I lcr nrcs rvlro leads soLrls to Hades. Neither of these, however,

is lxrrrr of tlre lorver mother, botll belong only to a fararvay,

lrr':r r t'nJy Iathcr.'Ilrc rrrotil ol'tlrt rariablc lorm retrtrned again in thc lol-

l,,rlirrg rlrtrrrn rvlrt'rc rr pittrtrc tvas sltotvn bearing the title,' I lr3-o, tlrc l\lirgic I)rirsorr.'

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A snake or dragon-like creature was represented in the picturetogether with a girl who was under his power. The dragon had theability to sretch out in all directions so rhar rhere was no possi"bility for the girl to evade his reach; at any movemenr ol hers hecould extend himself on that side and make escape impossiblc.

The girl, who can be taken as the soul, somervhat in tl)esense of the unconscious individuality, is a constantly recur-ring figure in all these dreams and phantasies. In our dream.picture she had only a shadowy outline, with blurred features.Still entirely in the power of the dragon, each of her move-ments was observed and measured by him, so that ller escape

seemed impossible .

Howevet, development is shown in the follorving phantasy,placed in India:

A magician is having one of his dancers perform before the king.Hypnotized by magic, the girl dances a dance of transformations,in which, throwing off one veil after another, she impersonates amotley succession of figures, both animals and men. But now, de-spite the fact that she has been hypnotized by the magician, a mys-terious influence is exerted upon her by the king. She goes moreand more into ecstasy. Disregarding the order of the magician tostop, she dances on and on, till finally, as though throwing ofi herbody like a last veil, she falls to the earth, a skeleton. The remainsare buried; out of the grave a flower grows, out of the flower, inturn, a white woman,

Here we have the same motif, a young girl in the polver ofa magician whose commands have to be obeyed without choice.But in the figure of the king, the magician has an opponentrvho sets a limit to the magician's portrer over the girl andbrings it about that she no longer dances at command but ofher own volition. The transformation, previously only indi-cated, now becomes a reality, because the dancer dies and thencomes up from the earth in a changed and purified fbrm.

The doubling of the animus figure l.rere is especially impor-


r,rnt; on the one hand, he appears as the magician, on the,,tlrcr, as the king. In the magician, the lower forrn of the.r rr irrrus repLesenting magic power is represented; it makes therirr I take on or imitate various roles, while the king, as already.,.r ir I, cmbodies the higher principle rvhich brings about a real| | .r r rslormation, not just a represenution of one. An importantlrnction of the higher, that is, the personal animus, is that as

.r Ilue psychopompos it initiates and accompanies tlre soul'st | :r nsformation.

A further variation of this theme is given in the same dream:tlrt girl has a ghostly lover who lives in the moon, and wlr<r

,,rrrres regularly in the shallop of the new moon to receive a

|,lood sacriflce which she has to make to him. In tlte inte rval,tlrt girl lives in freedom among people as a human bcing.l',ut at the approach of the new moon, the spirit turns herrrlo a rapacious beast and, obeying an irresistible force, to climb a lonely heiglit, and bring her lover the sacrilice.'I lris sacri{ice, however, transforms the moon spirit, so that helrirnsclf becomes a sacrificial vessel, which consumes itself butrs :rgain renewed, and the smoking blood is turned into a

lrlrrrrtJike form out of which spring many colored leaves andll( )WerS.

Irr other words, by the blood received, that is, by the psychic, rrclgy given to it, the spiritual principle loses its dangerouslyrorrrprrlsive and destructive character and receives an inde

lx rrrlent life, an activity of its own.'l lrc same principle appears as Bluebeard, a well-known

lor rrr o[ animus handecl down to us in story form. Bluebeards,rlrrccs womcn and destroys then in a secret way and lor, r;r r;r lly sct:rct purposes.

lri ()rr'(asc, hc bcars tlrc appropriatc namc o[ Amandus. Helr r r t.s tlrc gill irrto h is lrorrst', givcs her wine to <lrink, and aftcrwardst.rkcs lrtr irrkrlrrr trrrtlt lgrorrrrtl <rhrrrrbcl to kill hcr. As hc prcpares

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himsclf lor this, a sort of inroxication overcomes the girl. In .rsurlden impulse of love. she embraces the murdcrer, who js imme_diately robbed of his power and dissolves in air, after promisingto stand by her side in the future as a hclpful spirit.

Just as the ghostly spell of the moon-bridegroom rvas brokenby the blood sacrifice - by the giving of psychic energy _ sohere, by embracing the tenifying monster, the girl desroyshis power through love.

In these phantasies I see indications of an important arche-rypal formof the animus forwhiclr rherearealso mltlrologicalparallels, as, for example, in the myth and cult of Dionysus.The ecstatic inspiration rvhich seized the dancer in our firstphantasy and which overcame the girl in the story ofBluebeard-Amandus is a phenomenon characteristic of theDionysian cult. There also it is chiefly women who serve thegod and become filled with his spirit. Roschers emphasizes thefact that this service of Dionysus by women is conrary to theotherwise general custom of having the gods attended by per-sons of their own sex.

In the story of the moon-spirit, the blood sacrifice ancl trans-formation of the girl into an animal are themes for rvhichparallels can also be found in the cult of Dionysus. There,living animals were sacrificed or torn to pieces by rhe ravingmaenads in their wild and god-inflicted madness. The Dionys-ian celebrations also difiered from the cults of the Olvmoicgods in that rhey rook place at night on rhe mountains and inthe forests, just as in our phantasy the blood-offering to themoon-spirit took place at night on a mountain top. Somefamiliar figures from literature come to mind in this connec-tion, as, for instance, the Flying Dutchman, the pied piperor Rat Catcher of Hamelin, and the Water Man or Elfin Kinsof folk songs, all of whom employ music to Iurc maidens inro


tlrcir $rater- or forest-kingdoms. The "Stranger" in Ibsen'sI .udy lrom the Sea is another such figure in a modern setting.

[,et us consider more closely the Rat Catcher as a charac-

tt listic form of the animus. The tale of the Rat Catcher is

Lrrniliar: he lured the rats from every crack and corner withlris piping; tliey had to follow him, and not only the rats, but,rlso the children of the city - which had refused to rervardlris services - rvere irresistibly drarvn after him and made ttr

r lisrrppear into his mountain. One is reminded of Orpheus wl)or otrld elicit such magic sounds from his lyre that men antll)( :rsts $rere forced to tbllow him. This feeling of beingirlcsistibly lured and led away into rrnknorvn distances of\!;rtcls, forests, arld mountains, or even into the underrvorlcl,is rr typical animus phenomenon, it seems to me, and difficlrltto cxplain because, contrary to the other activities of the ani-

rrrrrs, it does not Iead to consciousness but to uncolsciousness,.rs lhese disappearances into nature or the underworld show.( )rlin's Thorn of Sleep, which sent any person it toucltecl into,r rlccp slumber, is a similar phenomenon.

'l'he same theme is very tellingly formulated in Sir Janres M.f irrr ric's play, Mary Rose. Mary Rose, rvho has accompaniecl

lrt'r lrusband on a fishing expedition, is supposed to be rvaitinglor him on a small island called "Tlie Island-That-Wants To-Itt Visitcd." But whilc she rvaits, she hears her name called;

slrc Iollows the voice and vanishes completely. Only after a

lrrlrsc o[ many years does she reappear, still exactly as she rvas

.rt llrc time of her disappearance, and she is convinced that she

lrrs lrccn on the island only a few hours, in spite of all the years

I lr:rt lravc intervened,Wlrat is dcpicted here as vanishing into natr.rre or the un(ler-

rvor Irl, or as a prick from the Thorn of Sleep, is cxperienced

l,y rrs irr orrlinary living rvlren otlr psyciric energy rvithdralvs

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from consciousness and from all application to life, disappear_ing into some other world, we know not where. When thishappens, the world into which we go is a more or less consciousphantasy or fairy land, where everything is either as we wish*t to be or else fitted out in some other way to comDensate thcouter world. Often these worlds are so distant and lie ar suclrdepths that no recollection of them ever penetrates our wakingconsciousness. We notice, perhaps, that we have been drawnaway somewhere but we do not know where, and even wher-we return to ourselves we cannot say what took place in theinterval.

To characterize more closely the form of rhe sDirit whictris acting in these phenomena. we might compare ii. efle, rs rothose of music. The attraction and abduction is often, as inthe tale of the Rat Catcher, effected by music. For music canbe understood as an objectification of the spirit; it does notexpress knowledge in the usual logical, intellectual sense, nordoes it shape matter; instead, it gives sensuous representationto our deepest associations and most immutable larvs. In thissense, music is spirit, spirit leading into obscure distances be-yond the reach of consciousness; its content can hardly begrasped with words - but strange to say, more easily withnumbers - although simultaneously, and before all else, withfeeling and sensation. Apparently paradoxical facts like theseshow that music admits us to the depths rvhere spirit andnature are still one - or have again become one. For this rea-son, music constitutes one of the most imporhnt and primor-dial forms in which woman ever experiences spirit. Hencealso the important part which music and the dance play as

means of expression for women. The ritual dance is clearlybased on spiritual contents.

This abduction by the spirit to cosmic-musical regions, re-

mote from the world of consciousness, forms a counterpart to


rlrc conscious mentality of rvomen, rvhich is usually directed,rrly toward very immediate and personal things. Suclt art

, rperience of abduction, holvever, is by no means harmless

ol rrnambiguous. On the one hand, it may be no more than

rr lapse into unconsciousness, a sinking arvay into a sort ofslt cping twilight state, a slipping back into nature, equivalentt() regressing to a former level of consciousness, and thereforerrstlcss, even dangerous. On the other hand it may rnean a

gcnuine religious experience and then, of course, it is of thclrishest value.

Along rvith the figures already mentionecl, rvhich show the

r||irnus in a mysterious, dangerous aspect, tllere stands another

ligrrre of a differcnt sort. In tlre case rve are discussing, it is

ir star hca.led god, guarding in his hancl a blue bird, the birdrrl tlre soul. This function of guarding the soul belongs, liketlrat of guiding it, to the higher supra-personal form of the

rrrrimus. This higher animus does not allorv itself to change

irrlo a function subordinate to consciousness, but remains a

srrpclior entity ancl rvishes to be recognized and respected as

surh. In the Intlian phantasy about the dancer, this higher,

ruirsculine spiritual principle is embodied in the figure of the

L irrg; thus, he is a commantler, not in the sense of a magician

l)u t in the sense of a superior spirit having nothing of the earth

,r' tlrc night about him. FIe is not a son of the lorver mother,

l)llt an ambassador oI a distatrt, unknorvn fat]ler, a supra

1x r sonal porver of light.All thesc figures have tlte character of archetypeso - hence

rlrc rny'tholouical parallels - as such they are correspondingly

irrrpclsonal, or srtpra-Personal, even though on one side they

;r)( tuIllc(l to$,rrrd the inclivicltral and related to her. Appear

irrg- rvitlr tlrcrr is the pcrsotlal animus that l)elonss to her as

.r r r irrl iv it lr rrr t ; t Ilir t is, tl)c rlras(lll ine or spiritual element whiclt

rorrcsporxls 1o lrcl trltlLtlltl gilts and can llc tlevclopecl into a

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(r)rrscious function or atritude, coordinated with the totalityof her personality. It appears in dreams as a man with whomthe dreamer is united, either by ties of feeling or blood, or bya common activity. Here are to be found again the forms ofthe upper and lower animus, sometimes recognizable by positive and negative signs. Sometimes it is a long-sought friendor brother, sometimes a teacher rvho instructs her, a priest whopractices a ritual dance with her, or a painter who will painther portrait, Tlren again, a lvorkman named "Ernest" comes tolive in her house, and an elevator boy, "Constantin," takesservice lvith her. Upon other occasions, she has ro srugglewith an impudent rebellious youth, or she mrrst be carefulof a sinister Jesuit, or she is offered all sorts of lvonderful thingsby Mephistophelian tradesmen. A distinctive figure, thoughappearing only rarely, is that of the "stranger." Usually thisunknown being, familiar to her in spite of his srangenessrbrings, as an ambassador, some message or command from thedistant Prince of Light.

With the passage of time, figures such as these describedhere become familiar shapes, as is the case in the outer wrrrldwith people to rvhom one is close or lvhom one meets often.One Iearns to understand why now this figure, now that appears. One can talk to them, and ask them for advice or help,yet often there is occasion to guard oneself against their insist-ence, or to be irritated at their insubordination. And theattention must ahvays be alert to prevent one or another ofthese forms of the animus from arrogating supremacy to itselfand dominating the personality. To discriminate between one-self and the animus, and sharply to limit its sphere of power,is extraordinarily important; only by doing so is it possibleto free oneself from the fateful consequences of identifyingwith the animus and being possessed by it. Hand in hand withthis discrimination goes the growth of consciousness and the


r crrlization of the true Self, which nol becomes the decisive

lir( tor.In so far as the animus is a supra-personal entity, that is, a

spirit common to all rvomen, it can be related to the individualr\,onlan as a soul guide and helpful genius, but it cannot be

srrlxrrdinated to her conscious mind. The situation is alifferentrvith the personal entity rvhich \'vishes to be assimilated, r'ithtlrc: animus as brother, friend, son, or servant. Confronted rvith, rrc of these aspects of the animus, the woman's task is to( r cate a place for it in her life and personality, and to initiates,rme undertaking rvith the energy belonging to it. Usuallyi)ur talents, hobbies and so on, have already given us hints as

r() the direction in ivhich this energy can become active.()lrcn, too, dreams point the way, and in keeping rvith the

irrrlividual's natural bent, mention rvill be made in them o[strrdies, books, and definite lines of rvork, or of artistic or{ \ccutive activities. But the undertakings suggested will;rlrr,ays be of an objective practical sort corresponding to the

rrrrsculine entity which the animus rePresents. The attitudertcrnanded here rvhich is, to do something for its orvn sake

;rrrtl not lor the sake of another human being - runs counterro lcminine nature and often can be achieved only rvith effort.llut this attitude is just lvhat is important, because otherwise

rlrc demand that is part of the nature of the animus, and

tlrcrefore justified, rvill obtrucle itself in other rvays, making

,lrrinrs rvhich are not only inappropriate, as has already been

s:ritl, but lvhich produce precisely the wrong effects.

Apart from these specific activities, the animus can and

slroulcl hclp us to gain knorvleclge and a more impersonal and

rr rrsonalrle way of looking at things. For the rvoman, rvith her

,nrtonlatic ancl oftcntimes altogethcr too subjective sympathy,

srrr lr an ac lricvemcnt is valtral)le; it can cven be an aid in the

lit.lrl rrrosL lrct ttliarly It< r rtrvtr, tltat. of relationsllill. Iior exam-


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ple, her own masculine component can help her to under-stand a man - and this should be emphasized - for even

though the automatically functioning animus, with its inap-

propriate "objectivity," does have a disturbing effect onhuman relationships, nonetheless, it is also important for the

development and good of the relationship that the woman

should be able to take an objective, impersonal attitude.Thus we see that there are not only intellectual activities

in which animus power can work itself out, but that above

all it makes possible the development of a spiritual attitudewhich sets us free from the limitation and imprisonment ota narrorvly personal standpoint. And what comfort and helpit gives us to be able to raise ourselves out of our personal

troubles to supra-personal thoughts and feelings, rvhich, by

comparison, make our misfortunes seem trivia] and unim-portant!

To attain such an attitude and to be able to fulfil the

appointed task, requires, above everything else, discipline,and this bears harder on woman, rvho is still nearer to nature,than on man. Unquestionably, the animus is a spirit whichdoes not allow itsell to be hitched to a wagon like a tame

horse. Its character is lar too much that of the elemental

being; for our animus may lag leadenly behind us in a leth-

argy, or confuse us with unruly, flickering inspirations, or

even soar entirely away rvith us into thin air. Strict and un-

failing guidance is needed to control this unstable direction-

less spirit, to force it to obey and to work toward a goal.

For a large number of \tomen today, Itorvever, the rvay is

different. I refer to those rvho through study or some otherartistic, executive, or professional activity, have accustomed

themselves to discipline before they became alvare of the

animus problem as such. For these, if they have suflicient

talent, identification with the animus is entirely possible.


Ilowever, as far as I have been able to observe, the problemof how to be a woman frequently arises in the midst of thernost successful professional activity. Usually it appears in theIbrm of dissatisfaction, as a need of personal, not merelyobjective values, a need for nature, and femininity in general.Very often, too, the problem arises because these women,without wanting to, become entangled in diflicult relation-ships; or, by accident or fate, they stumble into typicallylcminine situations toward which they do not know whatirttitude to take. Then their dilemna is similar to that of thernan with respect to the anima; that is, these women, too, are

r:onfronted with the difficulty of sacrificing what, to a certainrlcgree, is a higher human development, or at least a supe-

r iority. They have to accept what is regardecl as less valuable,rvhat is weak, passive, subjective, illogical, bound to nature -irr a rvord, femininity.

But in the long run both these different lvays presuppose

tlre same goal, and whichever way rve go, the dangers andrlilhculties are the same. Those women for whom intellectualr lcvclopment and objective activity are only of secondary im-

I)ortance are also in danger of being devoured by the animus,

tlrrt is, of becoming identical with it. Therefore it is of the

ilr(atcst importance that we have a counterpoise rvhich can

lrrld the forces of the unconscious in check and keep the ego

( { )nnected with the earth and rvith life.I,'irst and foremost, r'e find such a check in increasing

rorrsciousness and the ever firmer feeling of our own indi-virlrrality; secondly, in work in which the mental polvers can

lx' aPpliecl; and last but not least, in relationships to other

;,r'o1;le which establish a human bulwark and orientation

l)r)int, ovcr against the supra- or non-human character of the

.rrrirrrrrs. Tlrc relatiorrslrip of a woman to other women has

gltrrl rrrcanirrg itr lhis cotrtrection. I have had occasion to

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observe that as the animus problem became acute, manywomen began to shorv an increased interest in other women,the relationship to women being felt as an ever-growing need,even a necessity. Perhaps this may be the beginning of a

feminine solidarity, heretofore wanting, which becomes pos-sible now only through our growing awareness of a dangerthreatening us all. Learning to cherish and emphasize feminine values is the primary condition of our holding our ownagainst the masculine principle which is migl.rty in a doublesense - both within the psyche and without. If it attains solemastery, it threatens that field of woman which is most pecu-liarly her own, the field in which she can achieve what ismost real to her and what she does best - indeed, it endangersher very life.

But when women succeed in maintaining themselvesagainst the animus, instead of allowing themselves to bedevoured by it, then it ceases to be only a danger and be-comes a creative power, We women need this power, for,strange as it seems, only when this masculine entity becomes

an integrated part of the soul and carries on its proper func-tion there is it possible for a woman to be truly a woman inthe higher sense, and, at the same time, also being herself,to fulfil her individual human destiny.


C. G. Jung. Psychological TlpeJ. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co.,Inc., 1926. Chap. XI, sects. 48,49; also "The Relations Berween theEgo and the Unconscious" i\ Ttto Essays on Analytical Psychology.Bollingen Series XX. New York: Panrheon Press, 1953. Pr. II, Chap. II.Con(er niog rhe con( ept ol psy chic r ealiry. see rhe works of C. C. jung,especially Pj).iorogical Types, Lc., Chap. I.


ll. See NI. Esther FIarding. T ltr: Ilay ol A LVctmen. New York: Long-rnirns, Glccn & Cio., 1933.

l. l,ucicn l.dvy Ilruhl. PritliLiue A1(nlality. London: C. ]\ilen & UnnrinI-d., 1923, and The Saul af lhc Pr;milirlr. New York: The l\'IacnrillaDCo., 1928.

L. (j. G. Jung. Psychoktgical Typcs. l.r:., Chap. XI, secr. 30.(;. lxcellent examples oI animrrs ligurcs are to be found in fiction, sce

l{orrald lrascr. The I;11:ing 1)rdp.r. l,ondon: Jonathan Capc, 1924;

^lso Rase AtL\tcy. Lor)don: Jon:Lrhan Cape, 1930; Ntaric Hay. ?,c

Euil lineyarrL. l-cipzig: fauchnitz, 192.1; 'I hiodore l'lournoy_ alorrIltdia Io llu. Ptett?t j\.lars. Tr:Lnrllrcd by D. B. Verrnilyc. New York:Flarper llros., I900.

7. "Klrarrdogya" $) 'Ihe Upa/tis/d(Is. -l'ranslatecl by F. Nfax NluclJer.()xlbrd: Clircndon l'rcss, 1900, p. 58.

ri. See \'V. .|. l{osclrer. Lt:xihort tLer griuhischen und ri;ntisLhen Mythc,-1ogie, undcr " D;o11lsus."

!). C. G. JuDg. Psychologital 7lpes. Lc., Chap. XI, sec!.26; also -arr.)

Er.ra)r. 1..., p. 135.



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r f ||L 'on(epl o[elemental beingsdwelling in waterand air.I in errlh and fire. in animals and plants. is agc-old and

,u r rrrs all over the lvorld, as is shorvn by countless examples

rn rnythology and fairy tales, {olklore and poetry. Because

I lr( sc concepts reveal an astounding similarity not only to each

orlrcr, but also to figures in the dreams and phantasies of

rrr,rrlcrn people, we are led to conclude that more or less con-

sr;urt factors must underlie them, factors which always and

.vclylvhere express themselves in similar ways.'l'he researches of depth psychology have shorvn that the

rrrrges and figures produced by the spontaneous, myth-mak-

rrrg llculty of the psyche are not to be understood as merely

rr'Prrrducing or paraphrasing outer phenomena. They are

.rls,r cxpressions of inner psychic facts and may therefore be

r csrrlrlecl as one kind of psychic self-representation. This pointr,l liov can also be applied to the ideas of elemental beings,

,rrrrl irr what follows we shall inquire whether and in what ways

rlr rrrrirna is reflected in them. A comprehensive survey of the

rrr,rltrill is irnpossible here. I can give only a few examples,

,rrrrl. in <rrnnection lvith thent, discuss only the cllaracteristics

rrlrit Ir sccr to rnc to l)e important in my coutcxt. That is rvhy,

.rrrrorrg rrll (lrc clcrlcntill ( rclllu(s, tllc giallts, rlrvarvcs, elves,

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an(l so on, I am considering solely those which, because oftlreir fernale sex or their relation to a man, can be accountedembodiments of the anima. For the anima, as is well known,represenrs the feminine personality components of the manand at the same time the image which he has of feminine nature in general, in other words, the archetype of the feminine.

Therefore, these figures cannot be considered anima fisuresunless they contain typical and clearly recognizable femininetraits, and we shall give special attention to such traits in thehope of gaining a profounder insight into the nature of theanrma generally. Among the beings in question the best suitedfor such an investigation are the nymphs, swan maidens,undines, and fairies, familiar from so many legends and tales.As a rule, they are of enticing beauty but only half human;they have fisl.r tails, like the nixie, or turn into birds, like theswan maidens. Often they appear as more than one, especiallyas rhree; thc undifferenriated animus also likes to appear asmore than one.

With charms or enchanting songs these beings (sirens, theLorelei, and so on) lure a man into their realm, rvhere hedisappears forevermore; or else - a very important point _they try to bind the man in love, rhat they may live in hisworld with him. Always rhey have somcthing uncanny aLoutthem. and there is a taboo connected witlt them that must notbe broken.

The figure of the swan maiden is exceedingly ancient andcan almost be called mythological. She comes from very farback and appears all ovcr lhe world. probably the earliestliterary formulation of this motif is the story of purtravasand Urvasi. which is found in one of the oldesr Vedic wrir_ings, the Rig-Ved.a,r and more clearly and in more detail inthe Satapatha,Brahmana3 I will give the larter version in asomewhat shortened form.


Urvasl the nymph (apsaraf loved Pur0ravas and agreed torrrarry him upon her own conditions. She said: "Thrice a day shaltllrou embrace me but do not lie with me against my will and letrne not see thee naked, for such is the way to behave to us women."

After living with him for several years she became Pregnant,rrntl the Gandharvas,s linding that she had lingered long enough.rrnong human beings, devised a means lor her return. A ewe withrwo lambs, had been tied to her couch; these they stole during therright, one after the other, and each time she cried out: "Alas, they.rrc taking away my darling, as if where is no hero and no manl"

Hearing this, Purfrravas sprang up, naked as he was, to {ollowtlrc robbers, and at that instant the Gandharvas produced a flashol lightning so that Urvasi beheld her husband "as by daylight."l lrtrs one o[ her conditions had been broken and so, when Purfira-

virs returned, she had vanished.In despair he wandered about the country, hoping to find Urvasi

:rgain, and one day he came to a lotus lake on which "there wereryrnphs swimming about it in the shape of swans," and she whomlrc sought was among them. When she saw Pur0ravas, she showedIrcrsell in human form, and recognizing her, he pleaded: "Oh, myrvile, stay thou, cruel in mind: let us now exchan&e words! Untold,rlrcse secrets oI ours will not bring us joy . . ."

She replied: "What concern have I with speaking to thee? Ilrrrve passed ar,vay like the lirst oI the dawns. Puriiravas, go home.rgrrin: I am like the wind dimcult to catch. . ."

Sorrowing, he said: "Then will thy friend rush away this dayrcver to come back, to go to the farthest distance . . ," (to the wolf-i rrlested wilderness).

She replied: "Pnriravas, do not die! do not rush awayl let nottlrc cruel wolves devour thee! Truly, there is no friendship withrlomen, and their hearts are the hearts of hyenas . . ." She addedtlr:rt, while among mortals, she had eaten a little sacrificial latlvcrv dav and still felt sated with it,

llut finally her heart took pity on him and she told him tor orrrc back in a year. l'hen his son would have been born and then,r(x), slre would lie with him for one night. When he came on thelirst night o{ the ycar, lo, there stood a golclen palace, and he wasr')l(l to clter it, anrl his wifc was brorrght to him. l-he next morn-irrg thc (i:rnrlh:rrvrrs ollclrl lrirn a boorr rrnrl whcn, trlron [lrvasi's

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ir(lvice, he asked to become one oI them, th€y granted his wisbIlut first he had to offer a sacrifice, and the Gandharvas Dur 6reinto a bowl and gave it to him for rhe purpose. He took ihe fireand the son who had been born to him back to his native villaseThen, after seeking out suitable sticks for the sacrificial fire, helighted them in the way that the Gandharvas had prescribed, andbecame a Gandharva himself.

This ancient legend, early as it is, shorvs the typical featuresrvhich we find in later versions and in other localities. Forexample, union .rvith such a being involves a definite set ofconditions, non-fulfilment of which rvill be fatal. In our tale,for instance, Purfiravas may not be seen naked by Urvasi. Asimilar prohibition occurs in the famous story of "Cupid andPsychs,"r only there it is reversed, in that Psyche is forbiddenthe sight of her divine husband, rvhereas Urvasi does notwant to see the hlrman Puriravas naked, that is, does not wantto see his reality. Even though the breaking of this commandis unintentional, it results in the nymph's return to her ele-ment. When she says rhat she is sated rvith the bits of sacrilicialfat which she consumed during her sojourn rvith purirravas,

this also seems to indicate that human reality is not to hertaste; moreover, rvhen she returns tc\ her o\vlt rvodrl slre <lr.alsher husband after her'. 'I-o be sure, a son is mentioned towhom she eives birth after her disappearance and whomPurfiravas brings home later, so that apparently somethingrvith a place in the human realm results from their union, butone learns nothing further about it.5

In this relation the attitudes of Purfiravas and tlre heavenlynymph are markedly differenrj he, with hurnan feeling, lamenB the loss of his beloved, he tries to find her again andwants to speak rvith her, but her words, when she says thatrvomen have the hearts of hyenas, are the expression of a soul-less elemental being passing juclgment on itsell.


As to the interpretation of swan maidens, the school whichconceived of mythological images as embodiments of naturalforces and events saw in them the mist lvhich floats above the

water and then, arising, condenses into clouds and moves

r(ro\s the skv likc srvans flying. Even from the psychologicalpoint of view the comparison of these figures with mist anddouds is apt, for apparently as long as what are called therrnconscious contents remain unconscious, or almost so, theyare rvithout firm outlines and can change, turn into each

other, and transform themselves. Only when they emergefrom the unconscious and are grasped by consciousness dothey become plainly and clearly recognizable, and only thencan anything definite be said about them. Really one does

l)etter not to picture the unconscious as an actual area, witlrfirmly defined, quasi-concrete contents; such a concept is onlyoccasionally helpful when it serves to bring the imperceptiblecloser to our understanding. In liypnagogic visions or repre-sentations of unconscious contcnts a cloudlike formationoften appears at the initial stage of a development which takes

definite shape later. Something of the kind floated before(loethe's vision rvhen he allorved Mephisto to say, in describ-ing the realm of the Mothers to Faust:

. Escape from the ExisrentTo phantoms' unbound realms lar distant!Delight in what long since exists no more!Like filmly clouds the phantoms glide along.Brandish the key, hold oIT the shadowy throng."0

Frorr this we may conclude that the femininity representedlry the nymph, Urvasi, is as yet much too nebulous and in-corporeal to live permanently and realize itself in the humanltalm, that is, in waking consciousness. Her words, "I have

1r:rsscrl arvay like the first of the dawns. .. I am like the windtlillit:rrlt to catch," also indicate the insubstantial, breathlike

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character of lier being, conforming ro that of a nature spiritand producing an impression of dreamlike unreality.

Entirely similar in character is "The Dream of Oenghus,"an Irish legend ascribed to the eighth century.?

Oenghus, who was himself of mythical descent, saw in a dreama beautiful girl approaching his couch, but as he went to take herhand she sprang awa) from him. The following night the giilcame again, this time with a lute in her hand, "the sweetest thatever was," and she played a tune to him. So it went on for anentire year and Oenghus fell into a "wasting sickness," But aphysician diagnosed his trouble and thereupon m€ssengers weresent to scour the whole of Ireland for the girl who - so the physi-cian said - was destined to be his, Finally they discovered that herfather was the king of a fairy hill and that she changed her shapeinto that of a swan every other year. To meet her, Oenghus mustcome on a definite day to a certain lake. Arriving there, he sawthree times fifty swans upon the water, linked together in pairs bysilver chains, But Oenghus called his dream lover by name, andshe recognized him and said she would come ashore if he wouldpromise that she might rerurn to the lake again. When he prom-ised, she came to him and he threw his arms about her. Then "theyfell asleep in the form of two swans and went round the lake threetimes so that his promise might not be broken." Finally, as twowhite birds, they flew away (to his father's castle) and sang a beau,tiful choral song that put the people to sleep for three days andthree nights. "I'he girl stayed with him after that."

The dreamlike character of this story is particularly clear.That Oenghus' still-unknown beloved appears to him first ina dream, that she is expressly said to be destined for him, andthat he cannot live without her, are circ*mstances which un-questionably point to the anima - ro his other half. He winsher by accepting her condition, and allowing her for a timeat least to return to the water; indeed, he becomes a swan him-self. In other words, he attempts to meet her in her own ele-ment, her niaeau, in order to make her permanentlv his -


conduct which should also Prove of value psychologically, in

relating to the anima. The nagical sorg of the trvo srvans is

an expression of the fact that two beings of opposite nature,

rvho yet belong together, have now in harmonious concorcl

been united.The Nordic Valkyries are archaic and mythical swan

maidens of quite a different sort. They are called Valkyries

because, in the service of Odin, they recover the warriors

lallen in battle and bear them to Valhalla.E They also have a

role in bestowing victory and defeat, which shows plainly that

they are related to the Norns, who spin and cut the tlueads

of fate. On the other hand, when the Valkyrie in Valhalla

hands the hero his drinking horn, she is performing the usual

function of a serving rnaid. Yet offering a drink is a meaning-

ful gesture, too, expressing relationship and a rnutual tie; and

certainly a motif which occurs frequently is that of the anima

figure filling a man's cuP rvith a potion of love, inspiration,

transformation, or death. The Valkyries are also called Wish'

Maidens,s and now and then one of them becomes, as Briin-

nehilde did, the wife or lover of a great hero to whorn she

g-ives help and protection in battle.

One may well see in these semi-divine creatures an arche

rypal form of the anima, to be exPected in savage and war-

Ioving men. Indeed it is said of the Valkyries that their prin-

t:ipal passion is combat. They embody simulhneously, as is

also the case with the anima, both the man's desire and his

cndeavor, and insomuch as these are directed torvards battle,

Iris feminine side appears in a lorm that is warlike. Frrrther'

rnore, although the Valkyries are usually thought of as riding,they are also able to "course through air and water," and take

I lre shape of swans.l0

One crf the oldest songs ot the Edda, "the Song of Way-

l;rnd,"1t l.regins rvitlt the swan maiclen motif:

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"The maidens flew from the southBy the rnurky forest,Young swan maidens,Battle to waken.There on the borders oI the lakeThey reposed awhile.These southern maidens,And spun fine flax."l2

The song does not say, but allorvs us to guess that here, as inother similar stories, Wayland and his brothers stole themaids' swan garments so that they could not go away. Theneach of the brothers took one of the maidens and

"They remained afterSeven wintersDwelling there eightIn all affection;But in the ninth,Necessitated by dutyThe maidens desiredTo go to the murky Iorest,Young swan maiclens,Battle to waken,"

So they flerv away, and two of the brothers followed to seekwhere they had vanished, but Wayland, fashioning gold rings,sta)ed a[ home and arvaitcd their rcturn.

There is nothing more about this in the further course ofthe song, which proceeds along another line.

The significant tlring here is that the maidens feel an over-rvhelming yearning for battle and, by flying arvay, draw thebrothers after them. In psychological language, this meansthat the yearning, the desire for nerv undertakings, makesitself felt first in the unconscious-fem inine. Before comingclearly to consciousness, the striving for something ner,v anrl


different usually expresses itself in the form of an emotionalstirring, a vague impulse or unexplainable mood. When thisis given expression, as in "The Song of Wayland" and many

other legencls, through a feminine being, it means that the

unconscious stirrings are transmitted to consciousness througltthe feminine eleme nt in the man, through his anima.

This occurrence star6 an impulse, or acts like an intuition,disclosir.rg new possibilities to the man and leading him on topursue and grasp them. When the swan naiden lvishes to in-t:ite to battle, she plays the anina's characteristic rol e of f emme

inspiratrice - although, to be sure, on a primitive level rvhere

the "rvork" to \^rlrich the rnan is inspired is mainly that of6gtrting.

This is also a favorite role for women in the court Poetryof the Middle Ages, albeit in a more refined form. The knightfights {or his lady in a tournament, rvearing her token - her

slccve, for instance on his helmet; her presence fires himanrl raises his courage; she bestorvs the guerdon of victoryupon him and frequently this consists of her love. But oftenshe is cruel, demanding senseless and superllumar feats oflrer knight as the sign of his

Count William IX of Poitiers, renorvned as the first trou-baclour, is reported to have had the portrait of his beloved

paintecl on his slrield. Holvever, in the Iiterature of the trou-lradours, it is particularly interesting to see horv the inspira-tion moved graclually to other things than fighting.

The name Lady Adventure (Frau Adaentiurr) is anothercvidence of the masculine love of adventure being personifiedil [<lrrinine form,

A lurthcr peculiarity of the swan maiden is that she fore-r( lls tlrc Iutruc.r{ Tlrc \/alkyries, in spinning the fortunes oflrrttlcri arrcl so l)rcl)irrinn tlrc fate to be, resemble the Norns.Arrd irr trrnr, tlrc laltcr, wlrose namcs rre Wurd, Werdandi


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and Skuld,ro appear to embody the natural life processes ofbecoming and passing away.

In the Celtic realm the same character is ascribed to the

fairies, wlrose name is connected, with fatum,l1 and who also

like to appear in threes. Often it happens that the good be'

storved by the first two is cancelled by the third, a feature

likewise reminiscent of the Norns, or the Parcae.

The Nibelungenliad18 relates that on their journey to KingEtzel the Nibelungs came to the high waters of the Danube,

and Hagen went ahead to look for a way across. There he

heard water splashing and coming nearer saw "wisiu wtp"(wise women) bathing in a beautiful spring. Creeping up, he

took their garments and hid them. But if he would give them

back, one of the women promised to tell him what would hap-

pen on the journey.

"They floated like sea birds before him on the flood.It seemed to him their foresieht must needs be sure

and good.Whatever they should tell him


So here, too, wise women, resembling water birds, appear as

foretellers of future events.

It is well known that the Germanic peoples ascribed towoman the gift of prophecy, and for this reason she was espe-

cially esteemed by them, even honored. Odin himself goes to

a seeress, the Vala. to hear his fate. Tacitus2o mentions a

prophetess named Veleda, who enjoyed great authority amongher clan, the Bructeri, and was brought to Rome as a captivein Vespasian's time, and Julius Caesar recounts that amongthe Germans it was customary "for the mothers of families toforetell, by casting lots and prophesying, whether it would be

advisable to engage in battle or not..."21Amons the Greeks ancl Romans this function was exercised


by Pythia and the sibyls. And such concepts seem to have been

preservecl for a long time, as is shorvn by a story concerningCharlemagne, rvhich Grimm reports22 from a Leyden manu

script of the thirteenth century. The legend is intended to

explain the name of Aachen, originally Aquisgranum, and

says that:

Charlemagne kept a wise woman there, "an enchantress or fairy,who by other names was also called a nymph, goddess, or dryad;"2dwith her he had intercourse, and she was alive while he remainedwith her but died when he went forth. One day, as he had hispleasure with her, he saw (that there was) a golden grain uponher tongue. He had it cut away, whereupon the nymph died anonever came to life again,

This nymph recalls the mysterious Aelia Laelia Crispis dis-

cussed by C. G. .Jung in "The Bologna Enigma.":rIf we ask ourselves why second sight and the art of prophecy

are ascribed to woman, the answer is that in general she is

more open to the unconscious than man. Receptivity is a

feminine attitude, presupposing openness and emptiness,

rvherefore Jung25 has termed it the great secret of femininity.Moreover, the feminine mentality is less averse to irrationalitythan the rationally oriented masculine consciousness, rvhichtends to reject everything not conforming to reason and so

frequently shuts itself off from the unconscious. In thePhaedrus Plato criticizes this over'reasonable attitude - espe-

cially in the matter of love - and praises the irrational, even

the insane, insofar as it may be a divine gift. He mentionsseveral forms of this:

l. 'Ihe oracular wisdom pronounced by the Pythia, for instance,whcn giving advice as to the wellare of the state. Concerningthis he renrarks: "For the prophetess at Delphi and theprit stcsses ol l)otlona, when out of their senses, have conferred

llrcrt l)cr)cl*ts ()l I Icll:rs, boLh in ptrblic an(l in J)rivirtc lifc, butwhcrr irr t.ltcir s<'rrscs, lirw ()r Ir()rlc,'':r0

he therefore would

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2. 1he sibyl's gift of prophecy which foretells rhe furure.3. Tlre frenzy (enthousiasmos) inspired by the Muses.

Pythia, the sibyls and the N{uses are feminine beings andmay be likened to the northern seeresses; tlreir sayings are ofan irrational kind that looks like madness from the standpointof reason or the logos. Faculties such as these, howeue., donot belong to woman only; there have always been masculineseers and prophets, too, wlto are such by virtue of a feminine,receptive attitude whiclt makes them responsive to influencesfrom the other side of consciousness.

Because the anima, as the feminine aspcct of man, possessesthis receptivity and absence of prejudice toward the irrational,she is designated tire mediator betrveen conscr.ousness and theunconscious. In the creativc man, especially, this feminineattitude plays an important role; it is not r.vithout cause tharlve speak of the conception of a rvork, of carrying out athouglit, delivering oneself of it, or brooding over iti

The swan maiden motif occurs also in countless fairytales;27 the story of ,'TIle Huntsman and the Srvan Nfaiclen,,rvill serve as an example :

A forester, on rhe track of a deer, reached a lake just as threewhite swans came flying up. They immediately t,,rned into threetalr mardens who bathed rlremselves in the lake. buL atrer a whilethey emerged from the water and flew away as swans. H..o;ilnot get these maidens out of his mind and resolved to marry oneof them. So three days later he returned to the lake u,,a lg"i,lfound them bathing. Softly he crept up and took the swan ma]rtleleft.on rheshore by rhe youngest. she implored him to qive irDacK fo- her but he pretended lo be deaf and rook it home, s'o thatthe maid had to follow after. She was received in frientlly fashionby his people, and agreed ro marry the hunrer. But the.*o.,mantle he gave to his mother who put it away iD a.trest. Oneday, after this pair had lived happily together for ,.r.."i'y"".r,


rhe mother in tidying up lound the little chest and opened it. Assoon as the young woman caught sight of her swan mantle shetlrrerv it hurriedly around her, and with the words, "Who wantst() see me again must come to the glass mountain that stands onthe shining field"2s she swung herself into the air and flew away.'l'he unhappy hunter went to seek her and, with the assistance oflriendly animals, after many difrculties, finally lound her; then,having learned that she was enclranted, he set her free.

I have told this story in a good deal of detail because it in-t:lucles a nerv and very significant motif, that of redernption.'flre need lor redemption, shorvn by the enchantment, in,clicates that the swan form is not an original condition, butsecondary, like a dress hiding the princess. Ilehind the animalform is concealed a higher being which must be redeemed andrcith rvhich the hero will eventually unite.

The princess to be redeemed, appearing in so many fairltales, clearly points to the anima. Since, however, rhe stor,v

shows that the princess rvas there before the swan, this surel)hints at an original state of unity and rvholeness, which was

ended by the enchantment, and must now be recreated. Theidea that a primal condition of perfection rvas destroyed, b1'

either the sinful attitude of rnen or the envy of the gods, is a

very ancient concept, forming the basis of many religious andphilosophic systems. Evidences of this are the Biblical doc-trine of man's fall, Plato's originally spherical primal beingwhich split into halves, and the Gnostic Sophia imprisonedrn matter.

In psychological telrns we say that life's demands and theincreasing clevelopment of consciousness destroy or mar theoriginal wholcness of the child. For example, in the develop,ment o[ masculirre ego consciousness the feminine side is leftlrclrinrl:rnd so rernains in a "natural state." The same thingIrappcns in the rlilTcrcntiation of the psychological functions;

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the so-called inferior function remains behind and, as a result,is undifferentiated and unconscious. Therefore in the man itis usually connected with the likewise unconscious anima. Re-

demption is achieved by recognizing and integrating these

unknown elements of tlre soul

The fairy tale of "The Stolen Veil"2e presents this theme ina new way characteristic of the Romantic period. Localizedin the so-called Schwanenfeld3o in the mountains of Saxony,rvhere there is said to be a hidden, beauty-bestowing spring,the story contains the typical features already mentioned.Instead of her srvan raiment, however, a veil (and ring) arestolen from the bather.

The hero, who is a knight, takes her to his home, where theirwedding is to be celebrated; and in this tale, too, conlides the careoI the veil to his mother. Then, on the wedding day, the bridelaments that she does not have it and the mother brings it to her;whereupon the bride, putting on the veil and a crown, immediatelyturns into a swan and flies out of the window.

This story is too long to give in detail. It should be noted,however, that the mother, apparently with good intentions, is

again the one who gives back the bride's swan garment andso causes her departure.

Since the separation of the pair is brought about by themother's action, it is possible to deduce a hidden rivalry be-tween the mother and the anima, such as is often met with inactuality. On the other hand, this feature could also be under,stood as the tendency of the "Great Mother," that is, of theunconscious, to recall those who belong to her.

The slan maiden's royal descent, shown by her crown,marks her as a being of a higher order, and can be related tothe superhuman, divine aspect of the anima. Yet in manystories it seems as if the figure of the enchanted princess


should be interpreted from the standpoint of feminine psy-

chology; in this case, she represents the woman's higlrer per-

sonality, her Sel[.3r As fur tlre bird .hape: being a crcature o[

the air, the bird symbolizes not only the animal quality of

the natural being, but also contains an intimation of its un-

awakened spiritual potentialities.Another elemental being enjoying special PoPularity and

longevity is the nixie; theme of fairy tales, legends, and folk'songs in every period, she is a figure made familiar to us by

countless representations, Also, she serves as a subject formodern poets,32 and often appears in dreams.

An ancient term, particularly favored by the Poets of tlr€thirteenth century for such lvatery beings, is "Merminne,"t:tor "Merfei." Because they possess, like the swan maidens, the

gift of prophecy and a knon'ledge of natural things, they are

also called "wisiu wlp" (wise women). But in general, as rve

shall see, other factors take precedence over these, above all,

the eros factor. This is shown by the movement knou/n as

Frauendienst or Minnedienst, rvhich expressed the new attitude toward women and toward eros arising during the twelfthand thirteenth centuries and constituted a knightly counter'

part to the nurture of logos values in the monasteries. As the

poetry of tlie period shorvs, not least among the causes con'

tributing to this higher evaluation of women was the clearer

ernergence and increased effectiveness of the

Being essentially feminine, the anima, like the wonan, is

predominantly conditioned by eros, that is, by the principleof union, of relationship, while the man is in general more

lround to reason, to logos, the discriminating ancl regulativeprinciple.

So the Merminne and their companions always have a love

lclatiorrship to a man, or try to bring one about an endeavor

rvlrich is, inrlccrl, a frrttdamental l'etninine aim. In this regarrl

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Not till the third clay, when he tried half-baked bread, did the

l:rdy accept it, and even encourage him to take her hantl 'I'hen'

rrlter a little persuasion, she agreed to become his bride, but on

<oncl*tion that they should live together only until she reccived

from him "three blows without a cause " ]Ie acceded very willinglyto this, whereupon she vanished again beneath thc water. Immc'

rliately alterward, however, there emerged two beautilul ladics jttst

likc her, together with a hoary headed man of imposing statrrrc

who intro<luced himself as the bride's father and said that lre woul(l

consent to the union if the young man could choose the righr lady

o[ the two. This was no easy task since they were so much alike

but hc finally recognized his beloved by the way her sandals were

tiecl. Then her father Promised her a dowry of as many sheep

.irttle, goats, and horses as she could count "without heaving or

rllawing breath," and as she counted the animals came up ottt ol

thc lake. After that the couple rvent to live on a nearby fann and

clwelt there in llrosperity and happiness, and three sons were born

to them.One day they werc invited to a christening. The wife had no

(lesire to go but the husband insisted, and when she was slow toIrring the horses in from the lield, he gave her a jocular slap on

the shoulder with his glove, at wltich she reminded him of theirirgreement.

On anothel occasion when they were to&ether at a wedding, she

bLrrst into tears in the midst of the cheerlul company, and when

her husband, tapping her on the shoulder, asked the rcason for

this, she replied: "Now trouble begins lor this couple, and foryou, too, because this is the second blow." After a time it haPPened

tllat they attended a burial and, in contrast to the Seneral mourn-

iDg, she lell into frts o[ immoderate laughter. Naturally this was

very trying to her husband, so he hit her and admonished her notto laugh. She said that she had laughed because people, when they

tlie. are rid o[ their cares; and then she arose and left the house

rvith thcse words: "Tlte l;rst blow has been struck; our marriage is

lrloken antl at an end. liarewell."-l'herr, <:alling together all her alimals from the larm, she

rvcnrled her way with tlre whole herd back to tlte lake and dove in'l lre story rlocr ttol srty wlt:tt Irappr:tretl to the disconsolate hus

0ltlrcy differ from the swan maidens, who for the most Dart dorrot seek such a relationship of their own accord but, by tlretlrclt of their feather garments. fall into the man's powerthrough a ruse. Hence they try to escape at the firsr oppor_tunity. Such relationships are predominantly instinctive andlack psychological motive or any meaning beyond the in_stinctual. For a man to take possession of a woman more orless by force is a clear sign that his erotic attitude is at a corr_pletely primitive level. So it is not unreasonable for an elc-[rental creature, upon uniting with such a man, to ask thatshe be done no violence, never be struck by his hand, or spokerrto harslrly.

Legends of water fairies and nixies are particularlv wide-spread, especially in regions with a Celtic populatior. In ."rryplaces these tales are connected with definite localities andfamilies, particularly in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, whercthey have been current up until very recent times.

As one example among many I shall give a legend fromlVales, recorded by John Rhys,as a rvell known collector andstudenr of Celtic folklore.

The events described are supposed to have occurred toward theend oI the twelfth century in a village in Carmarthenshire inlVales, Here lived a widow with her son. One day, while pasturinghis cattle in the hills, rhe son came upon a small lake where, tihis astonishment, he saw,,one of thi most beautiful creaturesthat mortal eyes had ever beheld. . . a lady sitting on the unruffiedsurface of the water... arranging her tresses with a comb andusing the glassy surlace as a mirror." Suddenly she caught sightof

the young man, sraring at her steadily and holding o.,"t u pii..

of"bread in the hope of luring her to shore. She "ppiou.h.j but,

refusing the bread because it was too hard, she jo,re under thewater when he tried to grasp her. He returned home and cameback the following day when, upon his mother,s advice, heollered the lacly some unbaked dough; but the result w^s ro bett"r.

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to take part in, and this means that the Christian rite is repug-

nant to her heathen nature. According to the ideas of thattime, elfin beings shied arvay from everything Christian; the

sermons of the Christian missionaries lvere said to have clriven

them off and caused them to withdraw into the eartlr (intowhat were called fairy hills).

In the second incident she bursts into tears on a joyful occa'

sion, and in the third she disturbs the mood of mourning rvithunruly laughter; she behaves in an unadapted way antl her

utterances, although they seem reasonable to her, do not suit

the circ*mstances. This is an indication that something un-

differentiated is being expressed, because still unconscious orrepressed elements of the personality remain primitive and

undifterentiated, and rvhen outwardly rnanifested (in this

form), telle quelle,are unadapted. Similar manifestations can

be inrvardly observed or experienced by anyone at any time.

The nixie who lives in the water, that is, in the unconsciotls'

represents the feminine in a semi-human, almost unconscious

state. In so far as she is married to a man, one may assume that

she represents his unconscious, natural anima, together withhis undifferentiated feeling, since her transgressions occur inthis realm. At the same time it must be noted that she is un-

adapted not to matters of individual but of collective feeling.

It is a fact that one's unconscious personality components (the

anima, animus, and shadorv), or one's inferior functions, are

alrvays those which the rvorld finds offensive, and which are

therefore repressed again and again. The nixie's disappear-

ance into her element describes what happens when an uncon-

scious content comes to the surface but is still so little co-

ordinated with the ego consciousness as to sink back at the

slightest provocation. TIrat so little should be required tolrring tlris about shows lrorv fugacious and easily hurt these

()ntents ilrc.In tlris conicxl, lrxr, lr<'lottgs lltc tcvt'trge whi<:h clfirr lrcings


bancl but relates that the sons often wandered about the vicinitvof the lake and that their mother sometimes appeared to themthere. Indeed she revealed ro the oldest thar he would benefithumanity by becoming a healer. She gave him a sack of medicalprescriptions for this purpose and promised that she would comewhenever he needed her advice. In fact she showed herself fre-quently and taught her sons the qualities of the healing herbs,ro jh1:-_,h.y attained great celebrity by their medical knJwleclgeand skill.

The last descendants of this family of physicians are said tohave died in t7l9 and t739.

The story is, therefore, not solely concerned with an in,stinctual, erotic relationship; the water woman brinss herhusband prosperity and ransmits to her sons a knowledse ofhealing herbs rvhich is obviously due to her connection rvithnature.

Rhys cites countless similar legends connectecl with definitepersons who trace their descent to tvater women and are oroudof ir. The r:rboos are not alrvays tlre same; sometimes the mar,may not touch his wife with iron,36 or he may not speak un_lriendly words more than three times. arrd so on. But ,l*uy,the violation of the condition results from heedlessness, or afateful accident; it is never intentional.

Irrational as these concl*tions may be in themselves. theefiect that follows from infringing them is as consistent andinvariable as a natural larv. For half-human beines like theseare parr of narure and do nor posress the freedom oI clroiceallowed to man, rvhich enables him sometimes to behave in away that does not correspond to nature,s lalvs, as, for examole.when his beharior is determined bv insiglrts and feelingsrvhich raise it above the pr.rrely natural.

Much is to be learned in this story from the three incidentsin which the water fairy receives the fatal blows.

The first occasion is a christening, rvhich she has no rvislr

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lirkc wlten they are despisecl or insultecl, for they are extremelyloucl)y and likely to persevere in resentments unmodihed byany human understanding. The same may be said of theanrma, the aniurus ancl the undifferentriated functions; in,dcecl, thc exaggerated touchiness frequently to be met with inothertvise robust men is a sign of anima involvement. Like-wise to be discerned in the anima are the incal cu labi li ty, mis_chievousness and frequent malice of these elemental spirits,rvhich constitute the reverse side of their bervitching charu,.These beings are simply irrational, good and bad, helpful andharmfrrl, healing and destructive, like nature herself of whichthey are a part.37

And the anima, as the unconscious, feminine aspect of man,rs I.rot alone in showing these qualities; the same can be seerrrn many rvomen. For woman, in general, because of her bio-logical task, has remained a more elemental being than man,and often manifests this kincl of behavior more or less plainly.It is easy for a man to project rhe anima image to tlie noreelemental tvomen; they correspond so exactly to his orvn un_conscious fenrininity.

Because of this, elemental creatures, preferably nixies, alsoappear often in the imagery of r,vomen,s <lrearns and phantasies. They may represenr eirher the unrleveloped ani stillnatural femininity of the rvoman concerned, or else her in_ferior function; often, hon ever, they are incipient forms of theIriqher personaliry. of rhe Sclf.

In this Iegend rve meet another characteristic feature,narnely, the water maidcn combing her hair _ iike the Lorelei- and mirroring herself in the lake. The combins of the haircan rvithout difficulty be recognizecl as a means of sexualallurcmctrt still in use today. Lookine in tlrc ntirror bclerngsrvith it, ancl the trvo acrions together are often attribrrtecl tothe irnima fisrrre in literature and tlre plastic arts.3s


But the mirror as an attribute of the anima figure lras stillrnother neaning. One function of the anima is to be a lookingglass for a man, to rellect his thoughts, desires, ancl emotions,;rs clid the Valkyries. That is precisely rvhy she is so importantto Irim, whether as an inner figure or projected to arl actual,outer woman; in this rvay he becones arvare of things aboutrvlrich he is still unconscious. Often, to be sure, this function-ing of tlre anirna does not lead to greater consciousness ancl

sclf-knorvledge, but mcrely to a self-mirroring ivhich flatterstl)e nlan's vanity, or even to a sentimental sell-pity. Botlrnaturally cnlrance the polver of the anima and are tlrereforcrrot rvithout danger. Yet it is part oI feminine nature to ser-vc

ruan as a mirror, and the astonishing adroitness that the womanoften develops for this is what fits her especially to carry tl)ernzrn's anirna projection,

The fair N{elusine, also, belonged to the race of u'aterI'airies,3c and, although the legend about her is rvell knorvn, itcontains several important points, so I rvill give it

l{aymond, aclopted son of the Count oI Poitiers, had killed the(iount in a hunting acciclent aud fled into the woods in uncon-solable grief. There in a <iearins he carne upon three beautifulrn:riclens sittinq beside a spring, one ol whom was Melusine. Hepoured out his sorrow to her and she gave him good counsel,rvhereupon he fcll in love with her ancl askecl her to mary him.Shc agreed upon one condiLion, that he would allow her to spenclcvery Saturday in cornplete seclusion without ever intruding uponher. He ar:cepted this ancl they livetl happily rogether for many,vcars. She bore him several sons, lr'ho all, however, had somethingrrbnormal and rnonstrous about thern. She also had a splendidcasde built and narned it "Lusirria" after herself, although laterit carlc to be knoll'n as Lusignan. -l'hen one Saturday, disquietedl)y ruluol-s that hatl rcachcd him about his wile, Raymond spiedrrlxrrr bcr anrl, firrtlirrg ircr in hcr bath (tilmber, saw to his horror-tlrrt slr<. lrrrrl tlrc tlril ol rr Iislr or sclr-ser'PcDt. At first this rliscovery

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scrnlc(l Lo mirke no difference, but a little later news came tharorrc oI Me]usine's sons had attackcd and burned a monastcr]rvhich she had loundecl, and thut another o[ rlre sorrs,.rrho wrsr monk there, had perished. She tried ro console her husban<I, burhe pushed her asi<le sayirrg: "Away, odious scrpent, contaminatorof rny honorable race!" At these tvords she lirinted. But when sherecovered shc took te:rrlul leave o[ her husband ancl commendectthe chil(lrcn to his care; then, fiyilg out of the winclow, shevanished "with a long rvail of agony." Later slre reappeared occa,sionally to look afrer rhe children, some oI whom were srill small,ancl for a long while tlle legend persisted that she u,ould reappearovcr the ramparts o[ tire t:astle lvhenever one of the l,ords ofLusignan, who werc supposed to be her descendanls, was aboutto die.

Melusine's condition rvas that she be allowed once a tveekto rctrtrn to her elemcnt ancl resume lter nixie lbrm. This istlre secret rvlrich may not be spied upon. The non human, tlrcnatural, in this case the fish tail, must not bc seen. It is reason,able to assumc that the weekly ltath with its return to thenatural state is crlrrivalent to a reDetval oI life. Water is, in,deed, tlre lil'e elcrnent par excellence. It is indispensable fortire preservation of life, ancl healing baths or springs rvhichbring about tlre recovery and renerval of life havc always beenhelrl numinous, and have often enjoyed religious veneration.lrBut the cults of trees, stones and springs, ancl the burning offires and lights beside rl)cnr rvere prohibired as heathcn prac,tisesa'by the council of Ar.ignon in the year 4.12 A.D. In theirstcad images of the Virgin, dccoratecl tvitlr flo$,crs and candles,are raised near springs in nrany places as Christian expressionsof the ancient feeling tlrat still survives even today. One cog_nomen of Mary is " pigi," r.vhich means spring. The nurrinousquality of $,ater is also expressed by the very old concept of a"water of Iifc" posscssing supernatrlral porver, or tbe ,,oqua

pctrnenetLt" of tlrc alchcmists. Nyrnphs or fairies, drvelling in


or near springs, have a special affinity rvith the water, which is

believed to be the life element, and, since the source of life is

an unsolved mystery, so the nymph, too, has about lret sonte

thing mysterious which must remain hidden. In a sense thcsc

beings are the guardians of thc springs and certain healingsprings have a patron saint to this clay: Barlen, for example, has

St. Verena, lvho replaced a pagan nympli and is also conncctc(l

with Venus.

The anima, whose name expresscs her animating charactcr,

fulfils a similar function. So she often appears in drearns or

phantasies as this kind of fairy being. For instance, a young

man, who was very rational in his attitude and therelore ex-

posed to the danger of clessication, dreamed as follorvs:

"I arn going through a tlense wood; then, there comes towardme a woman envelopcd in a dark veil, rvlto takcs me by the handand says that she will lead me to the wellspring of li[e."

Recounting an early experience, the English rvriter WilliaurSharpa3 (1855-1905) tells of a beautiful rvhite rvoman of the

woods who appeared to him besidc a small lake encircled rvitlr

plane trees. As a child he called her "Star-Eycs," later "I-atly

of tlre Sea," and he says that he knew her "to be no other than

the rvoman rvlro is in the heart of all rvomen." Plainly, she is

the primal image of womanhood, an unmistakable anima

Iigure.{'The anima represents the conncction tvith the spring or

source of life in the unconscious. When no such connection

exists, or r,vhen it is broken, a state of stagnation or torporresults, often so clisttrrbing that it causes the person involved

to scck out a psyclriatrist. (]ottfried Keller describes this con

rlitir.rrr nrc.rst irttprcssivcly in his poen, "\\rinter Night."ar

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"Not a wing beat in the winter sky,Still and dazzling white the fallen snow.Not a cloudlet veiled the stars on high;No wave stirred the frozen lake below.

"From the deep rose up a water,treeTill its top froze in the icy screen;On a branch a nixie climbed toward me,Gazing upward through the {rigid green.

"Standing there upon the glassy sheetParting me from depths so black and dim,I could see, now close beneath my feetHer white beauty gleaming, limb by limb.

"She, in rnuffied misery, probed to findIn that rigid roof some fissured space -She is always, always, in my mind;Never will I forget her shadowy face."

The nixie, imprisoned in ice, corresponds to the enchantedprincess in the glass mountain, wlro was mentioned above;both glass and ice form a cold, hard, and rigid armor, imprison-ing what is living so that it needs to be set free.

Still another important feature of the Melusine legendshould be mentioned. When her son sets fire to the monasterythat Melusine has founded, this obviously expresses the antag-onism already referred to between the elfin race and Christian-ity. On the other hand, according to many accounts, it appearsthat these beings also desired redemption.

Paracelsus, tvho wrote a whole treatise on such elementalspirits as nymphs, sylphs, pigmies, and salamanders, says rhatalthough they do indeed resemble human beings, they are notdescended from Adam, and have no souls. The water peopleare the most like men and try the hardest to enter into connections with humans. They "have not only been truly seen


by man, but have married him and have borne him children.,'a6And further: "It is said of the nymphs, that rhey come to usfrom the water, and sit on the banks of the brooks where theyhave their abode, where they are seen, taken also, caught andmarried, as we said before."aT Through union with a man theyreceive a soul and the children, too, of such unions possess

souls. "From this it follows that they woo man, and that theyseek him assiduously and in secret,"a? in the same way that a"heathen begs for baptism and woos it in order to acquire hissoul and to become alive in Christ."

These disquisitions by Paracelsus provided the material forF. de la Motte Fouqui's (Jnd,ine,a8 written at the beginningof the nineteenth century, that is, in the Romantic period,when the idea of a soul informing nature was revived, and alsowhen the idea of the unconscious was first talked Inthis story the cenral motif is the soullessness of the nixie.

Undine is the daughrer of a sea king who reigns in the Mediter,ranean. At his wish, so that she may acquire a soul, she is secretlybrought to a fisher touple. who, belicving thar rheir own childhas drowned, take the foundling instead. Undine grows up acharming girl, yet olten alienates her foster parents by her strangelychildish nature, her constanr inclination to mischievous tricks.

During a storm an errant knight seeks shelter in the fisherman'shut, and Undine, though usually wayward and shy, is confidinglyfriendly toward him. Her charm and childlike ways enchant himand, since the storm has conveniently deflected a reverend fatherto the hut, the pair are wedded by him. But now Undine admitsto her husband that she has no soul, and he begins to feel uneasy.Despite all lris love, he is plagued by rhe thougbr ot being marriedto an elfin being. She begs him not ro cast her off, since her kindcannot win souls except through a bond of human love. She asksone thing of him only, that he will never - particularly if theyare near the water - say a harsh word to her, since, if he does, thewater people who are her guardians will come and fetch her away.

'l he knigltt takt s lter ltome to his casrle. arrd tlren l21a uPPau,.

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in the figure of Berthalda, a damsel who had hoped to become hiswife. Undine receives her in friendly fashion, but the knight gaowsincreasingly uneasy. Finally, while they are boating on the Danube,this uneasiness linds expression in his accusing Undine of witch-craft and jugglery when, in place of Berthalda's necklace that hadIallen into the water, she lifts out a string of corals.5o Deeply hurt,Undine swings herself from the boat and disappears weeping be-neath the flowing water, but not before warning her husband thatif he fails to remain true to her the water spirits will take revenge.

Nevertheless his marriage to Berthalda is soon planned. Onthe wedding day Berthalda asks to have her beauty lotion broughtfrom the castle well, which previously had been sealed on Undine'sorder, to prevent the water spirits from coming in. When thestone is removed, Undine's figure emerges veiled in white. Weep-ing, she moves toward the castle and knocks softly at her husband'swindow, In a mirror he sees her entering and approaching him.As she nears his couch, she says: "They have opened the well, so

I am corne, and now you must die." Unveiling herself, she takeshim in her arms and he dies as she kisses him.51

What brings about the catastrophe here is the conflict be-

tween the anima, that is the nature creature, and the humanwoman. In the Siegfried legend this plays an important part,as the strife between the Valkyrie Briinnehilde and Chriem-hilde, and it frequently leads to great difficulties in actual life.Fundamentally, such conflict expresses that opposition be-

tween two worlds, the outer and the inner, the conscious andthe unconscious, which it seems to be the special task of ourtime to bridge.

Another type of anima experience is presented in "Le Laid.e Lanval,"62 which is part of the Breton cycle of legends.

Lanval was a knight belonging to King Arthur's company, buthe Ielt disregarded because he had not sufficient wealth to makea fine display. One day, however, he met a beautiful damsel by aspring; she led hirn to her yet more beautiful mistress, who enter-


tained him wondrously and bestowed upon him the favor of herlove. Her only condition was that he should never betray anypart of ir. She also promisetl to frrlfil his every wish anti to appearwhenever he desirecl her. Thanks to this his other longings weregratified, and he was able to fit himself out so handsomely as togain rnore and more consitleration at court. He even attractedthe attention o{ the queen, who offered him her love. When herefused this, she was so hurt that she finally forced him to admitthat he had a mistress more beautiful than herself. Angrily, shedemanded that the king should call Lanval before a court ofjudgment to clelend himself against the charge of having insultedthe queen. To do so he would have to prove that his mistress wasreally as beautiful as he said, But the difficulty was that now hecould no longer summon the lady, because he had betrayed thesecret o[ her love. All hope seemed lost when, accompanied byIour fair damsels and riding upon a splendidly caparisoned whitepalfrey, his beloved appeared, like beauty in person, garbed inwhite and wearing a purple mantle. Lanval was now justified; allwere compelled to admit that he had not claimed too much. Thesong ends with the fairy taking her love away on the herkingdom.6s

Being carried away to fairyland is, psychologically, a veryimportant motif. In tlie Celtic tradition this realm does nothave the terrible and fearful character that it possesses else,where. It is not a kingdom of the dead but is called "Land ofthe Living" or "Land under the Waves," and is thought to becomposed of "green islands," rvhich are inhabited by fairfeminine beings and so sometimes called "islands of women."54Eternally young and beautiful, these creatures enjoy a lifewithout sorrow, full of music and dancing and the joys of love.The fairies live here, including famed Morgan la Fie (FataMorgana) r.vhose name implies that she is "seaborn," andthither they lead their human lovers. Psychologically, thisElysium, comparable to the Gardens of the Hesperides, canbe interpreted as a rlrearn land, rvhich is alluring and pleasant,

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ro l)e sure, but not without peril. That the anima rules thisrcaln and leads the way to it is rvell known. The danger ofgetting lost there, that is, in the unconscious, seems to have

been felt even in early times, for countless stories describe theknieht, caught in the bonds of love, rvho forgets his knightlydutiesss and in a self'sufficient twosome with his lady becomes

estranged from the world and from reality.An extreme example of this kind is the case of the enchanter

Merlin, whose beloved, the lairy Vivian, used the magic arts

which she had learned by eavesdropping upon him, to tie himin invisible bonds and imprison him in a harvthorn bush fromwhich he was never able to escape.

This story is particularly instructive because the figure ofMerlin so very fittingly embodied the consciousness and thethinking faculty which rvere lacking in the masculine worldaround him. He rvas a Luciferian, Mephisto-like being, andas such represented the intellect rn statu nascendi, that is, instill primitive form. To this he orved his magic power; butbecause his feminine sicle had been neglected, it drew himback in the form of eros, and bound in the toils of nature thisman lvho had identified himself rvith the logos principle.

To a somewhat later period belongs the Tannhiuser legendwhich Richard Wagner revived; it apparently dates from thefifteenth century and rvas widely known in the sixteenththroughout Srvitzerland, Germany, and the Netherlands.s6

"Now is lorsooth my lay begunOf Danhauser I'll sing thee,And of the wonders he hath donrWith Venus, rhe noble

"Danhauser was a sturdy knightIn quest of wonders heDid wish to enter Venus' morrnr,Where pretty women be."

ANIMA 7 .t

That is the rvay most versions oI the song, but thcrcis a Swiss {orm from St. Gallen, accounred one of tlre olclesrwhich says:

"Danuser was ein wundrige KnabGrauss Wunder got er go schaueEr got wol uf der Frau VrencsbergrsZu dene dri schcine Jungfraue.

"Die sind die ganze Wuche gar schriMit Gold uncl mit Sicle behange,Hiind Halsschmeid a und MaiekrciAm Suntig sind s' Otr.e u,nd Schlange!"ss

Whereby the residents of the Venusbcrg are markerl as rcla_tives of Melusine.

Though I believe I nray assulne that the legend is farniliar.let us rerall tlrc t irc*ntsr.rnr r...

Alter T'annhduer hacl lingered lor a long while in the Vcnusberg, his conscience smote him arrd he went to Rome to ask forabsolution from the Pope. But this was denicd him and he wastold that his sin woulcl no more be forgiven than thc dcatl brandrbefore him .lr,oulcl become green again. So he returnetl to theVenusberg and remained there, even whcn thc I'ope sent him arnessenger u'ith titlings that a mirircie had occurretl, that thebranch had gro.lvn green once more. I'he end of the song, in rnanyversions, goes as follotvs:

"-l ltus he r,rithin Lhe morrnt ,rgainDoth choose her love to be,And to the Pope, the fourth Urban,Is lost eternally."60

As the name shorvs, Venustrerg is a place of love's pleasuresancl dclights rvltere Verrus Irolcl srvay.6t It corresponrls in everyrvay to tllc "islancls of rvotnen" or thc lairy irills, spokcn ol'

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earlier, and all the legends about it resemble each other closelyin that they tell of a man being lured to such a place and heldthere by a woman's enchantment, and of his never, or onlylvith the greatest difficulty, being able to find his way outagain.

An example of this in antiquity rvas Calypso, who heldOdysseus on her island and released him only at the behest

of the gods. The enchantress Circe belongs in this category,

too; but her character was more witchlike, since she changed

her victims, Odlsseus r omrades. into swine.

The antagonism between Christianity and paganism, al'ready intimated in the story of Melusine, comes clearly to lightin the Tannhduser legend. Flowever, the paganism whichemerged at the time of the Renaissance was not that of thenorthern peoples, but that of antiquity. An example suited toour tlreme is the famous Hipnerotomachia Poliphili of Fran-cesco Colonna.62 Here a monk describes how, in a dream, hisbeloved, the nymph Polia, after letting him see and experiencea series of psychologically significant scenes and images fromclassical antiquity, finally leads him to Cytherea, where Venusgives the pair of them hcr blessing.

Another work important to mention here is Zr Paradis de

la Reyne Sibylle by Antoine de la Sale.s It lvas preserved intwo fifteenth century manuscripts and printed in 1521. This"paradise," according to one Italian tradition, lies on the

Monte della Sibilla in the Appennines. The author, who had

visited the place, gives an account of it and of the traditionsconnected with it. A cave in the mountain is supposed to be

the entrance to Queen Sibylle's palace and her realm withincorresponds exactly to the Venusberg. The legend resembles

that of Tanuhauser, except that here the repentant knight is

promised immediate forgive ness for his sins. I Iorvever, his

squire leads hirn to believe that the pope is deceiving him ancl


really intends to imprison them, so they both return to thesibyl's paradise.

That in this story the queen and her maidens should retire,every Friday at midnight, to their chambers for twenty-fourhours and assume snake forms is a feature already familiar tcr

us from the Melusine legend. I regret that the space at mydisposal does not permit me to discuss the book further. However, it is interesting in the light of what has already been saidto note that in this tradition the Venusberg and the sibyl'smountain are identical. According to Desonay the sibyl referred to is the Cumaean one, who told Aeneas the rvay tothe underworld, explaining where the golden branch coulclbe found that rvould open its This was supposedto be in a cave near Lake Avernus, and a grotto said to be thesibyl's is still shown in the vicinity. Obviously the traditionhas been combined with that of the cave on the Monte dellaSibilla, rvhich also lies near a lake and was believed to leaoto Queen Sibylle's

But there is still more: Desonay66 conjectures tliat possiblythis grotto may once have been dedicated to Cybele, themother of the gods, whose cult in 204 B.C. was introducedinto Rome as the result of a saying in the Sibylline Books, andsubsequently spread as far as northern Italy and Gaul.6? Aslife bestower and goddess of fertility, Cybele ruled the rvaters;as Mountain Mother and Mistress of Animals, she loved andrulecl all that was wild in nature. She bestowed the sift olprophecy, bul raused madness also, and her orgiastic culr wasrelated to that of Dionysus.68 She is familiar to us as the motherof Attis, but to go further into that myth now would lead ustoo far. I want only ro recall that part of the cult of this god-dess rvas that the priests should emasculate themselves. As wehave secn, those held prisoner in the fairy realm6s experiencedthe erlrrivalerrt of cnrasculation, too, losing tlreir virility ancl

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lrlorning rvomanlike and soft. The great diflerence, howcvcr, is tlrat rvhereas they succum.bed to temptation and weresu.bdu.e d by feminine rnagic, the priests of Cybele olJered a

sacri{ice to tlle goddess.

Unquestionably the clraracter ol tlre goddess Cybele can be

r:orlpalcd to that of the "Reyne Sibylle," even if Desonay's

lrypothesis is not substantiatecl by archaeological findings.Tlris sibyl's palarlise contains almost all thc fcatures previ-

ously noted in the various stor-ies oI srvan maidens, nixies andfairies. That a cornplex of icleas, such as this, should have

existed all over the rvolld since primeval times, always recur-ring in the sarne cornbination or else sinply remaining urr

changecl, clearly indicatcs that tlre material rvith rvhich rve

arc clealins is basically archetypal.-fbe Greot LIol.lrcr, tbe ProllteLas at\d the Lo e Goddess

are all aspects of primal femininity and also, therelore, aspccts

of the anima archctype.According to Kerdnyi's conclusions,?0 Cybele ald Aphrocl*te

are in the last arralysis onc and tlre same figure, and both may

be cquated to the great r)ature goddess. Hcls, too, is the clivine

lig-ure reflcctcd in the elenental cteatures clescr-ibed above andin the legencls associatcd rvith them, the same fig-ure rvhose

trrits llre arrirrrl lilcrr isc slr.rte..

Ilut slvan maiderrs artd nixies are not the only forms inrvhich elernental feminine rature shoivs itself. N{elusine is

scolded by her husbarrd for being a "serpent," and this figure,

too, can embody the primal feminine. It rcprcscnts a more

primitive and chthonic femininity than the fish does, for ex-

arnple, and ccrtainly more than the bird, rvhile at tllc same

time cleverness, even rvisdom, is ascribed to it. N{oreover, the

serpent is also dar]gerous. Its bite is poisonous and its ernlrracc

suffocating,?r yet everyone knorvs that dcspitc this dangerous-

lless the effect that it exerts is fascinating.


Appearing in countless myths and fairy tales, rhe serpcnt'srole is not always expressly feminine. In modern clrearns anrlphantasies, of men as well as of women, it often statrds forpre-human and undifferentiated libido rather than for ;r

psychic component that is conscious or capable o[ becomirreconscious.??

Yet there are certainly instances where the serpent has anexpressly anima character. In discussing the psycholog.icalaspects of the Kore figure,?3]ung tells of a young man's dre;rrnabout a fcmale snake rvhich behaved "tenclerly and insirruatingly" and spoke to him in a human voice. Another man,'rvho sornetirnes sees a rinsed snake in lris garden, says thathe feels it looks at him rvith rcmarkably human eyes, as if itrvanted to make a relation rvith hitn.

The spirit of naturc also appears as a snake or as a ',goldengreen triple snakeling," in the story of "The Golden pot"by E. T. A. Hofimann.?a Here the little snake, rvhich looks atthe hero of the tale rvith "inexpressil_rle yearning," turns intoSerpentina, a real anima figure rvho possesses rhe golden pot.The pot is a vessel in rvhich "the rvonderful land of Atlanris',is mirrored and this land, being sunk in the sea, rcpresentsthe unconscious. Itr letting the hero behold such images, Serpentina fulfils a typical anima function, and besides this shehelps him to clecipher some enismaric rvriting found on anemerald green lcaf, which is not hard to recognize as a leafIrorn nature s book.

lVhenever the anima appears as a beast of prey, as oftenirappens in dreams and phantasies, it is her dangerousness thatis being stressed. A man, for example, may dream that a lionessrvhit:lr has left her cage approaches and circles ingratiatinglyarouncl him. Then she turns into a woman, becomes threatening arrrl rvants to rlevour him. Ti5;ers, panthers, leoparcls, lncllrc;rsts of Jrrcy, gencrally, appcar irr this kind of rh.tarn. Irr

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China the female fox plays a big role; she likes to presenrherself as a beautiful maiden, but her tail can be recognized.Often there is something ghostly about her and she is takento be the embodiment of a departed spirit. Women havesimilar dreams, but in their case the animal, in so far as it isfemale, represents the shadow or the primitive femininity ofthe dreamer.

In recent literature the figure of Antinea in Benoit's novel,L'Atlantide,75 most impressively reveals both the serpent andthe beast-of-prey aspects of the elemental anima. Fascinatingall the men who come her way with the beauty of Venus, thewisdom of the serpent, and the cruelty of the carnivore, sheworks irresistible magic upon them and without exceptionthey perish. Then their mummified corpses are used ro orna-ment a mausoleum erecred especially for the purpose. Antineaclaims to have risen from the Lost Arlantis and to be descendedfrom Neptune; hence, like Morgan la Fie and Aphrodite,she is sea-born. She is a purely destructive anima figure; thosewhom she enchants lose all of their masculine strength andvirtue and finally die.

As may be seen from these examples, succumbing to thepower of the anima always has the same fatal effect and isin a way comparable to the emasculation of the priests ofCybele.

That Antinea should explain her nefarious behavior as

revenge upon man, who for centuries has exploited womanand misused her, is psychologically significant. In so far as

she embodies negative archetypal femininity, this would bethe feminine principle revenging itself for the devaluation towhich it has been subjected.

When, as happens in so many legends, an elemental creatureseeks to unite with a human being and be loved by him inorder to acquire a soul, it can only mean that some unconscious


and undeveloped component of the personality is seeking tobecome joined to consciousness and so to be informed withsoul. This striving is expressed in the same way in dreams,and C. G. Jung gives an example of the kind:76

A young man dreams that a white bird flies into the windowof his room. It turns into a little girl about seven years old who,after perching herself on the table beside him, changes back intoa bird again, but still speaks with a human voice.

This shows that a feminine creature rvants admission to tlredreamer's house; but it is still a child, that is, undeveloped;this is also expressed by the fact that it becomes a bird again.It is a first clear appearance of the anima figure, emergine tothe threshold of consciousness, but only half-human as yet.

For the unconscious has not only a tendency to persist in itsprimal state and to engulf and extinguish rvhat has already

been made conscious;?7 it also shows plain signs of activity inthe opposite direction. There are unconscious contents thatstruggle to become conscious and, like elves, revenge them-selves if this is not taken into account. The urge toward in-creased consciousness seemingly proceeds from the archetyp€s,

as though, so to speak, there lvere an instinct tending towardthis goal. But rvhere such an impulse comes from, or what ther.rature of the dynamis is which sets it going, we do not know.It belongs among the undiscovered secrets of the psyche andof life.

The urge toward increase of consciousness in the materialdiscussed above is expressed in the desire of a creature, stillbound to nature and only half human, to approach a humanbeing and be accepted by him, that is, by consciousness. Inthis connection, perhaps anotlrer motif rvhich has not yet been

mentionecl dcserves consideration: namelv, thc fact that these

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elemental beings quite often possess a (more or tess hidden)father. The Valkyries are Odin's maidens and Odin is a godof wind and spirit. In the tale of the huntsman and the swanmaiden, who has to be released from the glass mountain, herfather is with her and is released at the same time. The Welshnixie's father gives her in maniage to the man, and Undine,too, is sent by the sea-king, her father, to live among men inorder to gain a soul.

In modern dreams and active imagination, the anima alsoappears frequently in the company of a father figure. This canbe taken as an intimation that behind the feminine nature-element there lies a masculine-spiritual factor, to which maybe ascribed the knowledge of hidden things possessed by theseelemental feminine creatures. Jung calls this factor ..the OldWise Man," or the "archetype of meaning," while he desig-nates the anima as the "archetype of life."?s

The meaningful factor in the unconscious is what makes itpossible for consciousness to develop. In a certain sense thisfactor is comparable to the idea of the lumen naturae, whichParacelsus describes as an invisible light that,,reaches man,as in a dream." He says that "since the light of Nature cannot speak, it buildeth shapes in sleep from the power of thelVord (of God)."?e

Reviewing all that has been said about these elemental crea,tures, \,\'e see that in general they possess the same qualitiesand behave in similar ways. Moreover, these qualities and theeffects they produce can well be likened to those of the anima.Both the nature creature and the anima represent the erosprinciple, the former transmitting hitltlen hnowled,ge, just asthe latter trensmits informalion about the contents of the un-conscious. Both exert a fascinating effect and often possess a

power overwhelming enough to produce ruinous results, espe-cially when certain conditions afiecting the relationship be-


tween the human being and the elemental one, or betweenthe conscious ego and the anima, are left unfulfilled. Thisfailure is the reason why many legends end unsatisfactorily,that is, with the relationship broken off or made impossible-From this it may be seen that such a tie is a delicate matter, as

is also the relation to the anima. Indeed, we knorv from experience that the anima makes certain demands upon a man.

She is a psychic factor that insists on being considered, norneglected as is the general tendency, since a man naturalltlikes to identify himself with his masculinity.

However, it is not a quesrion of either surrendering hismasculinity completely to the service of the Lady Anima orlosing her entirely, but only of granting a certain space to thefeminine, rvhich is also a part of his being. This he does byrecognizing and realizing the eros, the principle of relatron-ship, which means that he not only becomes aware of his feel,ing, but also makes use of it, because to create, and especiallyto preserve, a relationship, a value judgment (which is whatfeeling is) cannot be dispensed rvith. A man by nature tendsto relate to objects, to his work, or to some other field of in-terest; but what matters to a woman is the personal relation,and this is true also of the anima. Her tendency is to entanglea man in such relationships, but she can also serve him wellin giving them shape - that is, she can do so after the feminineelement has been incorporated into consciousness. As long as

this element works autonomously, it disturbs relations ormakes them impossible.

The researches and discoveries of depth psycholog) have

shown that for modern people (or at least for many of them)a coming to terms with the unconscious is essential. To a man

the relation with the anima is of special importance; to a

woman, that with the animus. These factors, by building a

sort of bridge, cstablish the connection with the unconscious


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in general. The anima as a rule is projected first upon a realwoman; this may lead the man to enter upon a relation withher that he might otherwise find impossible; on the otherhand, it may also result in his becoming much too dependentupon her, with the fatal results described above.

As long as such a projection exists it is naturally difficultfor the man to 6nd a relation to tlle inner anima, to his orvnfemininity. Yet figures of women that cannot be identifiedrvith actual persons often occur in dreaurs. They appear usu-ally as the "stranger," the "unknorvn" or the "veiled woman,"or, as in the legends, they take the form of not quite humancreatures. Dreams of this kind are likely to make a strong im-pression and be colored with feeling; it is easy to believe thatthey concern an inner psychic magnitude tvith which a rela.tionship must be established.

In literature there is a contrast betrveen the great numberof figures like this, with all their attendant circ*mstances andeffects, and the rarity of cases in which relationships betweenmen and such elemental creatures are brought to a satjsfactoryconclusion. This uray result from lack of sufficient conscious-ness in the human being. It is essential in establishing a rela-tior.l to the unconscious that the ego be strong and well-defineclenough to resist the danger, alrvays present tvhen one dealsrvith the unconscious, of being overrvhelmed and extinguishedby it.8o A clearly defined ego is also needed to maintain thecontinuity of a relation of this kind, for although the uncon-scious figures rvould like to be accepted by men, that is, ad-mitted into consciousness, they are by nature fugacious andeasily disappear again. (As Urvasi says: "I have passed awaylike the first of the darvns . . . I am like the wind diflicult tocatch.")

Yet the solution of this problem appears to be a task ofspecial urgency today, as psychothcrapists an<l psyrlrologists


can testify, and in the method known as active imaginationC. G. Jung has pointed out an approach to it.81 The confron-tation and coming to terms of the ego personality rvith thcse

figures of the unconscious serve on the one hand to differenti-ate them from the ego, on the other, to relate them to it, andboth sides are affected.

A good and very charming example of this is to be foundin "Libussa," an originally Czech fairy tale, nelvly editcd by

Musaeus.s2 Brieflv. the storv is as follows:

A tree nymph, seeing her oak endangered, obtains protectionfrom a young and noble squire named Krokus. For his service she

proposes to reward him with the fulfrlment of a wish: for lameand honor, pcrhaps, or riches, or happiness in love. But he choosesnone of these, desiring instead "to rest in the shade of the oakfrom the weary marching of war," and there lrom the mouth ofthe nymph to learn "lessons of wisdom for unriddling the secrers

of the future." This wish is granted and every evening at twilightshe comes to him and they wander tog€ther along the reedy shoresof a pond. "She instructed her attentive pupil," we are told, "inNature's secrets, taught him the origin and essence of things,their natural and magical qualities, and so transformed the crudewarrior into a thinker and a man o[ world-embracing wisdom.In the degree that the young man's sensitiuity ond feeling becamereftned by his association uith this fair elf, her fragile, shadouyfigure seemed to tahe on additionaL solidity and substance. Herbreast gained warmth and IiIe, her brown eyes sparkled fire and,along with this womanly aspect, she seemed also to acquire theIeelings of blossoming maidenhood."

Here is an unusually apt description of the effects andcounter effects resulting from a relationship with the animafigure. She becomes more real and rnore alive; while the man's

feeling undergoes a differentiation, antl he is taught, too, tolrccome "a tlrinker and a man of world-embracing wisdom,"

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rlrcrcby achieving fame. The srory comes to a natural conclu-srt-rn;83 alter they have Iived togethe r for a long time, tfr"

"l_pr,one day says farewell to her husband, for.r.".ing ,ir", ,il'..0of h1 .oa\.t1ee

can no longer be averted. ffrln tf," i... i,srruck by Iightning and she, lvhose life tu. .._ui.r.j io.rnato it despite her human quality, disappea., for.u..A remarkable and, I believe, unique relation to the anina

was.found by William Sharp,sa the English author f fr""" "f

-ready mentioned. At the wish of his m"erchant fu,n". fr. i.r,studied law but proved unsuited to it. Then t. ,p".r, ,i.".years, equally unsatisfactorily, in a London banking house.Resigning this position, he turned to art and tit".u.y i.iti.ir_and also published some po€ms. These occupation, b.ouehtnrm rnto touch with London literary and ariistic ci.cles inahe became especially friendly with Dante Gabriel norr*i. inrne brography from which this material is taken (written byhis wife who was also his cousin) we are told that r.riu..rityteaching posts were repeatedly offered to him which h".o.,lanot accept because of his health. Besides this critical and intel_lectual side, he had also a lively life of dreams aJ;";;;:;;,which he called the

life,,,because it r"u, ,o .io."i;;;;-nected with nature, for which he clrerished u g."r, Iou". ihi,side of his character came into its own during ii, .rru.t *io,to the sea, and above all in Scotland. In his bJyhood ";;";;;;;nurse had familiarized him with Gaelic legends, u.ra S.o,tu.rifor him seemed a home of the soul. Duriig one ,,"y ,tr".. ilstarted writing a Celtic romance entitled pharais, he be-came i.ware as he wrote of the predominance of the feminineelement in it, and of how much the book owed its ;.;r;to the subjective, feminine side of his nature. In .""r.q;;;.;he decided to publish it under the name Fiona frl".t.oa, ,fri.tcame "ready made,,to his mind; subsequently h.lvrot.

"number of other books under this pseudonym, vividly renae._


ing the special character of Scotland and its inhabitants. Dueto the arvakening of a new interest in Celtic things among agroup of writers at rhis period, these were very well ,eceiued.According to William Butler yeats, among the new voicesnone was more distinctive than the mysterious and remarkablcvoice revealing itself in rhe stories of Fiona Macleod, whichseemed itself to become the voices of these simple people andelemental things - not by observation of them only, but bvidentity of nature. The art of these stories, yeats said, was ofthe kind that rested upon revelation; it dealt with invisible.ungraspable things. Asked why he wrote under a woman,sname, Sharp replied, "I can write out of my heart in a wav Icould not do as William Sharp . . . This rapt sense of onenessrvith nature, tbis cosmic ecstasy and. elation, this wayfaringalong the extreme verges of the common world, all this is sowrought up with the romance of life that I could not bringmyself to expression by my outer self . . .,,85 He made a closesecret of his identity with Fiona Macleod and for a lons whilenot even his friends were made acquainted with ,.heri; Wil_liam Sharp had his own correspondence, and Fiona Macleodkept up a separate one with her readers. To his wife he wrote:"More and rnore absolutely, in one sense, are W. S. and F. M.becoming two persons * often married in mind and one na_ture, but often absolutely distinct;',eo urr6 he siened this letter"\Vilfion" (a contraction of William and Fioia). Sometimes.too, on his birrhday he exchanged letters with Fiona, in whichhe expressed gratitude to her and she gave him advice.

Here we have a case where the inner anima attained a raredegree of reality. Perhaps this was due to a special disposi-tion on the part of William Sharp; in prirrciple, however, itcorresponds to what we mean when we speak of relating to orintegrating the anima - which, in a certain degree, is surelypossible to all men.

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lor the integration of the anima, the feminine element, intoa man's conscious personality is part of the individuationprocess. In this connection, however, a point of special im-po ance must be taken into consideration, for the feminineelement which must become an integrated component of thepersonality is only a portion of rhe anima, namely, its personalaspect. The anima also represents the archetype of woman.hood, which is suprapersonal in nature and therefore cannotbe integrated.

Behind the elemental beings of our study stand, as we haveseen, the divine figures of Cybele and Aphrodite - in the lastanalysis, the Goddess Nature. This archetypal background ex-plains the irresistible force which can emanate frorn such ananima figure; for if in it Nature herself is encountered, thenit is understandable that a man may be overcome and fall intoits power. This happens particularly when no differentiationis made between the archetypal and the personal aspects of theanima. Indeed, confusing the two aspects is what gives theanima superior power, and that is why it is most important todiscriminate between what belongs to the personal and whatto the suprapersonal. This separation is sometimes repre-sented in dreams and phantasies by the death of the supra-personal anima figure. I know of one phantasy in which sherises to heaven, and the ordinary woman remains behind; inThe Dream of Poliphilo, which has already been mentioned,the dream closes with the nymph Polia dissolving "into thinair, like a heavenly image."8?

C. G. Jung tells of a man's dream in which a female figureof more than life size and with a veiled face stands in a church* in the place of the altar. Indeed, like the Platonic ideas, thearchetype of the anima is of superhuman nature and dwellsin a celestial place. Though distinct from the personal, feminine components of the soul, she is nevertheless the primalimage standing behind them and shaping them to her likeness.


As Great Mother and Goddess of Love, as "Mistress," or bywhatever other name she may be called, the anima in herarchetypal aspect is to be met with reverence. On the otherhand, a man must come to terms with his personal anima, thefemininity that belongs to him, that accompanies and supple-ments him but may not be allowed to rule him.

In attempting, as I have in this study, to present the animaas an elemental being, I have left out the higher forms of itsrnanifestation as, for example, Sophia. This is because itseemed important to me to emphasize the natural aspect whichso markedly belongs to the essence of feminine being.

When the anima is recognized and integrated a change ofattitude occurs toward the feminine generally, This newevaluation of the feminine principle brings with it a duereverence for nature, too; whereas the intellectual viewpointdominant in an era of science and technology leads to utiliz-ing and even exploiting nature, rather than honoring her.Fortunately, signs can be observed today pointing in the latterdirection. Most important and significant of these is probablythe new dogma of the Assumptio Mariae and. her proclama-tion as mistress of creation. In our time. rvhen such threaten-ing forces of cleavage are at work, splitting peoples, individ-uals, and atoms, it is doubly necessary that those which uniteand hold together should become effective; for life is foundedon the harmonious interplay of masculine and feminineforces, rvithin the individual human being as well as without.Bringing these opposites into union is one of the most impor-tant tasks of present"day psychotherapy.


L Lieder des Rig-Veda. Translated into German by H. I{illebrandt.cijttingcn: Vandcnhoock & Ruprecht, 1913. X. 95, P. I42.

2. Sotapalha-llrahmana ir Sacrctl lJoohs ol the East,XLIV. Ed. F. Maxlvluellcr. Oxford: Oxtord Univcrsity I'rcss, 1900. p. 69 ff.

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The Apsaras (those who move in water) are celestial water nymphsof great beauty, devoted to song and dance. Their masculine partnersare the likewise musicJoving Gandharvas. See Hastings. Encyclopediaol Religion and Ethics, under "Brahmanism."Apuleius. ?ie Metamorphoses or The Gold,en lss. See Erich Neu,r ann's Amor and, Psyche: The Psychic Development of the Fem;nine.Bollingen Series LIV. New York: Pantheon Press, 1956.

Cf. Adalbert Kuhn. Die Herabkunft Feuers und Gaitte ranks.Berlin: Dumrnlers Verlag Buchhandlung, 1859. Here this son is con-ceived of as frre.

6. Johann W. Goethe. Fazsl. lhanslated by George M. Priest. NewYork: Alfred A. Knopf, 1950.

7. Taten lrofi A Celtic Miscellany. Translated by K. H. Jackson.London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951. Also, H. Arbois de Jubain-vllle. The lrish Mythological Cycle and, Celtic Mlthology, 'ltuns-lated from the French by R. I. Best. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co.Ltd.. 1903.

8. Wilhelrn K. Grimm. Deutsche Mythologie. Vol. I, Chaps. XVI, IV,1835. This work has been republished, Vienna & Leipzig: BerninaVerlag, 1939. All the following references, howevcr, are to the 1835edition. (Ed. note)

9. One of Odin's names is Wunsch (Wish). W. Gtimm, ibid., Yol. l,Chap. XVI.W. Grimm, ibid.Cl. Wayland. Smirr. Translated from the French of Dopping andMichel by S. W. Singer. London: William Pickering, 1947. ThisEnglish version was chosen because it nost closely tesembles theGerman used by Mrs. Jung, (Edd.a. Yol. I, Translated into Germanby Felix Genzmer. Jena: Diederichs Verlag, l9l2). A few changes,however, have been requiled to make it correspond entirely. (Ed.note)

;:r:.*""". that, as Valkyries, rhey spun rhe rhreads of victory and

Cf. also M.-L. von Fr^nz. Archetypal Patterns in Fa;ry Tales. Z,jrich:Privately printed, 1951. Chap. V.According to Grimm (ibid. Chap XII) the swan was considered aprophetic bird, and that the word schuanen is equivalenr to ainet(to have a presentiment) seems to have a connection with this.According to J. A. Macculloch (The Religion of the Anc;ent Celts.Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, l9ll) the Badb, or "barrle crow," an oldwar goddess of Irish myrhology, is related ro rhe Valklries, but haslhe more sinistcr characrer ot a foreteller of evil.On the anima as a spinner, see C. G. Jung. lion. Ziirich: RascherVerlag, 1951. An English translation of this section of lion appeared








as "Shadow, Anima, and Animus" in Spring 1950, published by thcAnalytical Psychology Club of N.Y. Inc. p. 3.

16. U&, yeftlandi and SAz/rj are the past, present, and future of thcverb, to be. See Prosa lldda. Scandinavian Classics. Vol. V. NervYork: Oxford Univelsity Press, 1929. Notes 12, 13, 14, p.28.

17. Fatum means statement, prophecy (See A. Walde. Laleinis(hesEtymolog;sc hes ll drterbuc h, 19l0).

18. The La! of the Nibelungs. Metrically translated frorn the Old Cer-man text by Alice Horton. London: George Bell & Son, 1901. TheIollowing passage occurs in Adventure XxV, Verse 1536.

19. "Sie swebten sam d;e yogele aor im uf der aluot.Des d.uhten in ir S;nne stare unde guot.Zwas si im sagen tuolden, er geloubte in dester bas."

20. Tacitus. Cermania 8. quoted from W. Grimrn (lbid., Vol. I, Chap.V, p. 7B).

2l."ut matres familias eorum sortibus et t)aticinat;onibus .leclararenlutrun proelium committi ex usu esset nec ne." Grimm, ibid., Vol. I,Chap. V, p. 78.

22. Grimm, ib;d.,Vol. I, p. 361.23."quantlam mulierem fatatam, siue quanalam fatam, que alio namine

nimpha, uel dea, ael adriades (dryas) appelatur."?4. "The Bologna Enigna" was published in English in Ambix, Vol. Il:

Journal of the Society for the Study of Alchemy and Early Chemistry.London: Dec. 1946.

25. Ct. C. G. Jung. "The I'sychological Aspects of the Nlother Archctype '

in Spring 191) (publishcd by the r\nalytical Psychology ClLrb of N.Y.Inc.) ancl translatcd from the German in the Eranos-Jahrbuch YI.Ztrich: Rhein Vcrlag, 1939.

26. The trlorhs of P/aro. Translated by B. Jowett. New York: Dial Press,

No date. p.401.See in this connection, "Der lager und die Schuanjungfrau" (1-hcHunLsman and the Swan Nlaiden) in DcLr lrcre llltirchen seit Grimn,hrsg. von Paul Zaunert. Jena: Diederichs, I919. Sce also "Die weisseunaL die schuarze Braul" (The White and the Black Bride) and"Die Rabe" (The Raven) from Grimm's Kinder unrl Hausmiirchen,Vols. I & II, and, "Die Entcnjungfraz," (The Young Duck Womarr)a Russian tale; all to be found in Mrirchen dcr lleLllileratur. Jer^lDiederichs, I915. I-ikewise "The Adventures of Hassan of Bassorx,"which is the tale of the 577th night in The Book ol lhe ThousandNights and Ona Night.According to Gcrmanic and Northern sources the glass mountain was

thought of as a place in the tseyond, the drvelling of the dead or Lhe

blesscd; according to othcr ideas, swan maidens, fairies, witches,dwarfs, and similar bcings livcd there. In many fairy talcs peoplearc lcd thcrc by a spirit or demon and havc to bc rcdecmed. (Cf.Hantluijrlerbuclt dcs deuttchen Abcrglaubens, publishcd by H.



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Baechtold-Staubli, nnder "GIa\berg") This place in rhe Beyond may$'ell be equated with the unconscrous.

29. "Der geraubte Schleier." See T. K. Musaeus. Volhsmiirchen d.erDeutschen, Vol. II, in Mtirchen We ltliteratur. I. c.

30. "Field of Swans." Here the ediror injecrs rhe amusing remark thatthis locale got its name from a certain Schwanhildis and her fatherCygnus "who both belong to the race of fairies and probably stemfrom Leda r egg.."

31. See C. G. Jung. "The Psychological Aspects of the Kore" in Jung andKerCnyi. Essal,s on a Science ol Mytholog. tsoltingen Series XXII.New York: Pantheon Press, 19,19.

32. See Goethe's poem "Der Fischer" (fhe Fisher); Gotrfried Keller's"Nixie irn Crundquell" (Nixic in the Spring) (Gesammelte WetkeBerlin: W. Herz, l89l,92) alld bis "Winternacir" which is given intranslation latcr in this article; Gerhart F{alrptmann's The SunkenBell (Freely rendered into trnglish by C. H. Nleltzcr. Cardcn City,N.Y.: Doubledav Page & Co.. lgl4): Jean Gir.rudoux. unhne (English version prepared io conjuncrion with Schuyler Vyatrs. Ne\irYork, l94l).

33. Minne meaning love. CI. Minnetdnger (Singer of Love). See W.Crimm. Deutsche MythoLogie, l. r., Vol. I, p. 360. According toF. Kluge in Ddari.ll es Mythologisches Wt;rterbuch the original of the word Minne is remembrance, commemoration, recollec-tion. It is related to the English word mind, and stems from theIndo-Germanic toot men or man, mcaning thinking, meaning.Grimm connects it with manus, marr.

34. See, for example, the interesring study by R. Bezzola on "GuillaumeIX de Poitie. s" 1n Romania, Vol. LXVI.

35. John Rhys. Celtic Folklore. Oxford: Clarendon Press, t901. p. 3 fLJ6. To iron is arrributcd the po$er o( prote, ring:rgdin(r elfin b;ings.37. This is qrrite startlingly described in a norrhcrn fairy tale .,Die

llald.frau" (The Forcst Woman) (Mrirchen der trleltliteratur, I. c.)r.hith tellr o[ a wood{ hopper, cnrhanred by a beauritul maidenwhom he has met in the forest. Evcry niEht she takes him with herinto her mountain where ercrvrhing i. mirc splendid rhan anythinghe has ever seen. One day, as he is chopping, she brings him a mealin a beautiful silver bowl but, as she sits down on the tree trunk, hesees - to his horror - that shc has a cow's tail and that it has fatleninto the cleft in the tree. Quickly, he pulls out his wedge so thatthe tail is caught and pinched off. Then he wrires the name of Jesuson lhe bowl. Immediarely the wonlnn di.appears. and the bowl withthe food becomes nothing but a piece of beef with cow dung on it.

58. The mirror is known in folk super.ririon rs an instrument;[ mirgi(.It has a numinous efiect, since one sees onc's shadow or (louble in it.A magic mirror shows what is happening all over the world, or itforetells the futurc and in general reveals sccrct and hirldcn things.









(See Handuirterbuch iles Deutschen Aberglaubens. ,. .., Vol. lXwder "Spiegel").

39. See C. G. Jrng. Paracelsi.a (Ziirich: Rascher Verlag, 1942) where thclegend is fully told, and the figure of Nlelusine is interprered as thcanima in connection with alchemical symbolism and the Paracclsianconcept o[ the Melusines as dwelling in the blood.

40. From S. Baring-Gould. Curious Myths of the Mitlttle lges. London,Oxford & Cambridge: Rivingtons, 1869.

41. As, for instance, Lourdes.42. After Alfred Maury. Croyances et Ligenries du MoyenAge. Parls:


Willian Sharp (Fiona Macleorl): A Memoir compiled by his wileElizabeth Sharp. New York: Duffield & Co., 1912, p. 9.Ibid., p.9.English version by the translator. (Ed. note)Four Trealises of Theophrastus lon Hohenheim, called Paracekus.Edited by Sigerist. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1941. p. 236.Ibid.., p. 239 ft.F. de la Motte Forquf, Undine. Translated fron the German byEdmund Gosse. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., 1912.Carl Custav Carts. Psyche. Jena: Diederichs Verlag, 1926.The loss of Berthalda's necklace having been brought about byUndine's water guardians, without her foreknowledge. (trd. nore)That this same material has been used very recently by Giraudouxin his play Undine shows that it is not yet outdared.Four La;s of Marie de France - Guingamor, Lantal, Tyrlet, Bis.lduer. Rendered into English by Jessie L. 'Weston. London: D. Nutr,t 910.A similar German legend is reported by Paracclsus in the treatisem*ntioned above, as also in W. Grimm in Dezlsclre sagen. (Munich& Leipzig: Georg Mueller, No date. Vol. II) It tells of a knighr fromStauffenberg who, one day as he was riding to church, met a marvel-ously beautiful maiden sitting all alone at the edge of a forest. As itturned out, she had been waiting there for him. She rold him rharshe had always lovcd and guarded him, whercupon they became en,gaged. This maiden, too, was a fairy who could always be summonedby wishing. She provided him wirh money and properry on thecondition that he should form no tie with another woman. Whenhis lamily pressed him to mary and he agreed to do so in spire of rhis,she filst gave him a warning, then brought about his dcath mysteri-ously within three days. In this maiden who has loved rhe knightsince the beginn;ng, it is nor dimcult to recognize his own feminineelement; its exclusive demand is a characteristic anima trait whichoftcn leads to diffcult conflicts and entanslements.Scc.|. r\. MrcCullougb. The Religion al the Ancicnl Ctlts.l. c.



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55. fhis motif plays an important role in, for example, ChrCrien deTroyes' poems "Ytain" and "Erec and. Enitle." The last work is thcsubject oI a very discriminating study by R. Bezzola (Le sens d.eI'Adrenture et d,e I'Amour. Pan:is.. Ed. La ieune Parque). The heaviesltask of the lovelorn hero consisrs in his having ro fight with an op-ponent in the same condition, that is, to some extent with his double.Overcoming him signilies thar he can liberate himself from theisolating cnchantment of love and turn back with his wife to societyand the world.

56. P. S. Barto. Tannhiiuser and the Mountain ol ZenrJ. New york.Oxford Univcrsity Press, American branch, 1916. See pp. ?4, 75 forthe English version given here which precisely parallels the Germangiven by lvlrs. Jung. (trd. note)

57. In some versions it says "lenus iLer D uelinne" (Venus of theDevilesses).

58. Here Venus has become the Swiss Verena.59. Unfortunately no English rendering of rhis could be found_ It runs

roughly:"Danuser was a wondrous youthGreat wonders came he to see.

IIe came to Lady Venere's mount'Io those beauteous maidens three.

"Throughout the week they're fair all dayDecked out with silk and gold,Rings and beads and crowns of May,But Sunday they're otte$ and snakes.,,

60. Barto. l. c., p. 95. The version given by Mrs. Jungruns as follows:"Do was er uider in d,en Berg

Und, het sin lieb erkoren.Des must der liette Babst UrbanAuch eaighlich se;n !erloren.',

61. See also W. Grimm. Deutsche Mythologie. l. the later MiddleAges in Germany, Venusberg was identified with the Grail, rhisappellation in rhe coune of time having acquired the meaning offeast and rnerriment. \ r. Her!z quores a chronicler who says: ..Hisrory

writers believe that the swan Lnight came from the mountain whereVenus is in the Grail." (Patzital und d,er Graal)

62. For a detailed psychological study of this work, see Linda Fierz,David:The Dream of Poliphilo. Bollingen Series XXV. New york: panrheonPress, 1950.

63. Antoine de la Sale. Le Paradis d.e Ia Sib)11?. Edited and wirh a criricalcommentary by Fernand Desonay. paris: Librairie E. Droz, 1g30.

64. See W. J. Roscher. Lexikon der griechischen und rdmischert Mytlt.ologie.


65. Le Parad;s d.e la Sibylle. L c.66. Ibid.67. The image of the goddcss, a sacred stone, was at that time taken

from Pessinus and brought to Rome.68. In an Orphic hymn she is invoked as "Preservcr of Life and Fricn(l

of raging Passion." (Orpheus, Altgriechische Myster;engesiinge.Translated into German by J. O. Plassmann. Jena: Dietrichs Vertag,1928)

69. One could also designate it as the "realm of rhe Nfothers" (Goerhe).I chose the other term because in this story it is not the maternalaspect of the feminine, but the eros aspect, that stands foremost.

70, K. Kerdnyi. "Die Ct;Itin Nalur" in Eranos-Jahrbuch XIV. Ziirich:Rhein-Verlag, 1947.

71. C. G. Jur\E. Slmbole der Wand.lung.4rh edir. Ziirich: Rascher Ver,lag, 1952. p.513 & p. 610. For English, see Psychology ol the Un&n-rcio&r. New York: Moffat Yard & Co., 1921. p. 183 & p. 2l l. (Will beVol. V in the Collected Worhs)

72. See C. G. l.ung, ibitl.; also Erich Neumann. The Origin and Historyof Constiousness. Bollingen Series XLII. New York: Pantheon Press,1954.

73. Jung and KerCnyi. Essals on a Science of Mylholog. l. c., p. 242.74. I refer you to Aniela JaffC's excellent study, Biltler und Symbok aus

E. T. A. Hofimanns Mdrchen "Der goldne Topl," included in C. G.

Iung's Gestaltungcn des Unbeuussten. Ziirich: Rascher Verlag, 1950.75. Pierre Benoit. I tlanl;da. Translated, into trnglish by Mary C. Tongue

and Nlary Ross. New York: Duffield & Co., 1920.76. Jung and Kerenyi. Essal,s on e Science of lltythology. l. c., "The

Psychological Aspects of the Kore," p. 241.77. C. G. Jung. Symbole der Wand.lung. l. .. (for English, see note 71);

and E. Neumann. The Origin and. Histary ol Consciousness, l. c.

78. See C. G. lwg. "Uber die Archelypen hollectiten Unbetuussten"in Von dem Wurzeln des Beuusslseizr. An English translation of thisrevised article will be published in Vo]. X of Ll\e Collected Worhs. Atpresent the only English velsion available is the unrevised articleentitled "Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious" in Integrationol the Personal;ly. Nerv York: Farrar & Rinehart, lnc., 1959. Forreferencc to the anima, sce p. 77; to the Wise Man, p. 88. See also

Jung's "The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairy Tales" in Spiriland Nature. Bollingen Series XXX.I. New York: Pantheon Press,t954.

79. Quoted by C. G. Jung in "The Spirit of Psychology" in Nature andSpirit. I. c., pp. 405, 406- See also Pardre&zr Selected Writings. Bol-lingen Series XXVIII. New York: Panthcon Press, 1951. p. 255.

80. C. G. Jung. "The Relations Between the lgo and the Unconscious"in Tlro Er.tdlr on Analytical Ptychology. Bollingcn Series XX. NewYork: Pantheon Prcss. 1953.

Animus and Anima by Emma Jung - [PDF Document] (51)







Jung and Kerdnyi. Essays on o Science of Mythotogy, l. ".

p. 228 fr,

J, K. Musaeus. Volksmiirchen d,ef Deutschen, Vo,, Il, i\ Miirchend,er Weltliteratur. l- c.The story also describes the fates of the couple's three daughters,which I will not go into here.William Shatp (Fiona Macleod,): A Memoir compiled by his wifef,lizabeth Sharp, J. r.I bid.., p. 227 .

Ibid., p. 285.See Linda Fierz-David. The Dream of Poliph;lo. l. c., p. 210,


Emma Jung (1882-1955) was a psychoanalyst, writer, and thc wilc ol (i (' lrrrrg

A lifelong student of Arthurian mythology, she is (with Marie-Louilic v(,n l rdnr)the co-author of Tbe Grail Leqend. Her two classic papers on Aninlr ul Artwtwere first published in English in 1955 and are still required reading lor trnlnlnH

Jungian analysts.

Animus and Anima by Emma Jung - [PDF Document] (2024)


What is anima and animus in Jung's theory? ›

Jung believed that the anima and the animus manifest themselves by appearing in dreams and influence a person's attitudes and interactions with the opposite sex. A natural understanding of another member of the opposite sex is instilled in individuals that stems from constant subjection to members of the opposite sex.

What are the 4 stages of animus? ›

The animus from theory is analyzed through the method of psychological approach by C. G. Jung (1969). Theory psychological approach classified the stages of animus the character been through, they are: man of power, man of action, man of words, and man of wisdom.

What is an example of anima and animus? ›

They symbolize the features and traits that are diametrically opposed to the person's conscious gender identification. A man's anima, for example, may manifest as sensitivity, intuition, creativity, or compassion. The animus of a woman might emerge as reason, assertiveness, logic, or boldness.

Is anima the female or animus? ›

In a woman her contra sexuality is masculine and governs her rational thinking function and we call this the Animus. In a man his contra sexuality is feminine and governs his irrational feeling function and we call this the Anima.

What are the symptoms of anima possession? ›

The Anima possessed man is a spineless wimp who does not know when or how to take action in the world. He is moody and sulky and throws tantrums like a toddler. Although very passive, he totally overreacts to slights and confrontations.

Is animus masculine or feminine? ›

Originating in the idea that Anima/Animus archetype is a counterpart of gender identity, these images are traditionally considered as feminine for men and masculine for women (in Latin, Anima is the feminine while Animus is the masculine gender, both defining the “soul”).

What is a healthy animus in a female? ›

A woman with such an animus has a great respect for traditional learning; she is capable of sustained creative work and welcomes the opportunity to exercise her mind. She is able to relate to a man on an individual level, as lover rather than husband or father, and she seriously ponders her own elusive identity.

Is the anima animus the shadow? ›

The persona is the mask we wear in social situations, while the shadow represents our repressed or hidden aspects. The anima/animus represents the feminine/masculine aspects of our psyche, while the self is the true, integrated, and balanced self.

When anima and animus meet? ›

No man can converse with an animus for five minutes without becoming the victim of his own anima. When animus and anima meet, the animus draws his sword of power and the anima ejects her poison of illusion and seduction. The outcome need not always be negative, since the two are equally likely to fall in love.

What is the quote about anima and animus? ›

The shadow can be realized only through a relation to a partner, and anima and animus only through a relation to a partner of the opposite sex, because only in such a relation do their projections become operative.

What is the soul according to Jung? ›

As the soul is experienced through the body, it is often the vehicle that brings this imbalance of existence into consciousness. Jung said that the soul is the psychological experience of the body, the soul and psyche is visible in the body (Jung, 2014, p. 355).

Does animus mean soul? ›

Latin, mind, soul.

What does it mean when a woman is connected with her animus? ›

In Jungian psychology, the anima is a man's internal other, the animus is the woman's internal other. A woman has an inner animus, a masculine image that guides and shapes the way she relates both to men and the world at large.

Who runs the Animus? ›

Well after the death of Desmond,i.e from Assassins' Creed IV onwards, Ubisoft added a bit of personal touch by replacing Desmond with the user itself. In brief, it is us who controls the Animus after the death of Desmond.

What happens if you let the Animus choose your gender? ›

The answer, thankfully, is very simple. Pick the default "Animus decides" option and you'll play as female Eivor through the vast majority of the game, except in the two mythological realms of Asgard and Jotunheim. There, you'll take on a somewhat different role, and appear as male Eivor instead.

What does animus mean in psychology? ›

animus \AN-uh-muss\ noun. 1 : a usually prejudiced and often spiteful or malevolent ill will 2 : basic attitude or governing spirit : disposition, intention 3 : an inner masculine part of the female personality in the analytic psychology of C. G. Jung.

What does anima mean in psychology? ›

an·​i·​ma ˈa-nə-mə : an individual's true inner self that in the analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung reflects archetypal ideals of conduct. also : an inner feminine part of the male personality compare animus, persona.

How to integrate the anima and animus? ›

To avoid projection and integrate our Anima or Animus into our conscious awareness, we need to recognize and accept the qualities that they represent. This requires a process of self-reflection, introspection, and personal growth.

What is the origin of anima and animus? ›

Etymologically, the words anima and animus mean 'soul' in Latin. Jung did not choose them haphazardly, for the anima or animus is the mediator between the conscious and the unconscious.


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